By Dr.-Ing. Thomas Flik, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans Liebig (auth.)

In the previous couple of years, numerous books on microprocessors have seemed out there. such a lot of them originated within the context of the 4-bit and the 8-bit microprocessors and their relatively basic constitution. notwithstanding, the techno-logical improvement from 8-bit to 16-bit microprossors ended in processor elements with a considerably extra complicated constitution and with an elevated performance and likewise to a rise within the approach architecture's complexity. This books takes this development into consideration. It examines 16-bit micro-processor structures and descrihes their constitution, their habit and their programming. the foundations of laptop or­ ganization are taken care of on the part point. this is often performed via a close exam of the attribute functionali­ ty of microprocessors. moreover the interactions among and software program, which are regular of microprocessor know-how, are brought. Interfacing suggestions are one of many focal issues of those issues. This puplication is equipped as a textbook and is meant as a self-teaching path on 16-bit microprocessors for college kids of laptop technology and communications, layout engineers and clients in a wide selection of technical and medical fields. uncomplicated wisdom of boolean algebra is believed. the alternative of fabric is predicated at the 16-bit microprocessors which are at present on the market; however, the presentation isn't really certain to somebody of those microprocessors.

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Extra resources for 16-Bit-Microprocessor Systems: Structure, Behavior, and Programming

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Register file 1 CLRB R4 2 EXC Rl,LOC 3 SWAP R3 RO Rl R2 R3 Rt. 3) executes a write access and POP executes a read access on the user or the system stack. The accesses occur as words or double words. R7 is used as Stack Pointer Register (SPR) in user mode and RT is used in system mode. Both stacks are filled towards lower addresses. The Stack Pointer (SP) always points to the last input In the following example, LOC is an even byte address. PUSH LOC POP Before PUSH n-2 n After PUSH - After POP f-- SP Operand SP .

MOVE RI,#325 or MOVE RI,#LOC2. The symbol, which is LOC2 here, has to be defined by a value. I MOVE I R I Rl 11M I Operand 4. Register Indirect addressing (RI): The effective address is in the register; the operand is in the memory. g. MOVE RI,(RO). 2. a) Load the memory cell LOC with the direct operand 325. b) Transfer the content of LOCI to a memory cell LOC2 Whose address was stored in RO before. OC DSW 1 MOVE LOC,#325 LOCI LOC2 a b DCW DSW 325 1 MOVE RO, flLOC2 MOVE (RO) ,LOCI • 5. Autoincrement addressing (IN): The effective address is in the register; the' operand is in tlle memory.

1). 32 8 7 15 RO Register file Rl RZ R3 R4 R5 R6 SPR=R7 SPR'=R7 ' I 1System stack pointer register User stack pointer register I I 15 PC I I I Program counter I I I I I I I I Status register I 15 SR I I I I I Fig. 1. Programmable microprocessor register (programming model) Register File. The register file includes eight general purpose 16·bit registers named RO through R7. They are directly addressed in the address part of the instructions. 4). Staek Pointer Registers. Some instructions use registers R7 and R7' as Stack Pointer Registers (SPR); this also happens during trap and interrupt handling.

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