By James Wynbrandt

Offers the foremost occasions, humans, and traditions that experience formed Pakistan. This name comprises insurance at the The land and its humans; The Indus Valley Civilization; The Vedic Age in Pakistan; The wealthy person interval; British rule; The fight for independence; Partition; Civilian and army rule; and, Islamization of Pakistan.

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The Afghanis constructed a fort in the Khyber Pass to block the advance of Arabs. Arabs in Sind As noted, the Arabs were familiar with the coast of the subcontinent, having sailed along its western shores plying a bustling trade with Ceylon (today’s Sri Lanka) for centuries. In addition to the challenge of the elements, pirates and hostile coastal kingdoms made the voyage perilous. At the mouth of the Indus River (called the Mehran by the Arabs), the port city of Debal served as the stronghold of the Meds, one such kingdom.

Caliph Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan (r. 661–680), founder of the Umayyad dynasty, dispatched an overland expedition to recapture the region. Kabul and the Buddhist holy land of Gandhara, which encompassed Kashmir and what is now northern Pakistan, including the Peshawar plain, Taxila, and Swat, had been under the rule of the Shahi dynasty since the decline of the Kushan empire in the late second century. Between the dynasty’s founding—likely by descendants of the Kushans—and its decline in the ninth century, some 60 Shahis, as the kings were known (a title believed to be derived from the Persian shah or shao of Kushan’s rulers, and meant to denote kinship with the Persians, either actual or aspirational), ruled the territory, though not without interruption.

His son Samudragupta (r. 330/335–380) was a poet and musician as well as a fearless and aggressive warrior. Under Samudragupta’s rule, the Guptas, as the dynasty was later known, were accepted as the subcontinent’s preeminent kings. Samudragupta conquered all of Upper India and counted the rulers of Punjab and Malwa among his vassals; these and other Hindu vassal states flourished under the Guptas’ reign. Samudragupta expanded the Gupta empire southward to Kalinga (present-day Orissa Province).

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