By Hanan Frenk, Reuven Dar (auth.)
Nicotine is sort of universally believed to be the foremost issue that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. gurus comparable to the health care provider normal of america and the Royal university of Physicians within the united kingdom have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This booklet is a critique of the nicotine habit speculation, in line with a severe evaluation of the examine literature that purports to turn out that nicotine is as addictive drug. The assessment relies on a re-evaluation of greater than seven-hundred articles and books in this topic, together with animal and human experimental reviews, results of `nicotine alternative therapies', and lots of different suitable resources. This overview concludes that on current proof, there's each cause to reject the widely authorized thought that nicotine has a huge position in cigarette smoking. A serious exam of the factors for drug dependancy demonstrates that none of those standards is met by means of nicotine, and that it truly is more likely that nicotine actually limits instead of enables smoking.
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Extra info for A Critique of Nicotine Addiction
Unlike the pharmacological definition, the behavioral definition does not require a causal role for the drug in maintaining the addictive behavior, which effectively makes the definition circular. This circularity of the behavioral definition opens the door to a particular logical fallacy, which can be stated as follows: “Every drug that is addictive by pharmacological criteria produces a pattern of drug use that is addictive by behavioral criteria. A behavioral pattern that is addictive by behavioral criteria includes consumption of drug X.
It can persist despite a desire to quit or even repeated attempts to quit. Such behavior is also referred to as “habitual” behavior” (p. ” Even to the layperson, this criterion of drug dependence would seem very weak. Its weakness is made especially evident in the last sentence, which clarifies that all this criterion means is that drug dependence must be a habit. Many unwanted behaviors fit the description that they are “driven by strong, often irresistible urges” and persist despite a desire or attempts to quit.
HABIT CRAVING, WITHDRAWAL, AND RELAPSE Compulsive habits are defined by a strong urge, or craving, to perform a certain act, such as pulling hair, binge eating, washing hands, stealing or masturbating. Performance of the act relieves the craving and may be accompanied by pleasure. Blockage of compulsive habits is accompanied by unpleasant symptoms, which always include increased craving to perform the blocked habitual activity, but may include also arousal, irritability, discomfort, insomnia, anxiety or depression.
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