By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti

Web filtering, censorship of web pages, and on-line surveillance are expanding in scale, scope, and class world wide, in democratic international locations in addition to in authoritarian states. the 1st iteration of web controls consisted mostly of creating firewalls at key net gateways; China's recognized ''Great Firewall of China'' is likely one of the first nationwide net filtering structures. at the present time the recent instruments for net controls which are rising transcend mere denial of knowledge. those new concepts, which goal to normalize (or even legalize) net keep an eye on, comprise exact viruses and the strategically timed deployment of disbursed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, surveillance at key issues of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent phrases of utilization guidelines, and nationwide info shaping ideas. entry managed studies in this new normative terrain. The booklet, a venture from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto's Munk Centre for overseas reports, Harvard's Berkman heart for net and Society, and the SecDev staff, deals six gigantic chapters that learn web keep watch over in either Western and japanese Europe and a piece of shorter neighborhood reviews and state profiles drawn from fabric accumulated through the ONI all over the world via a mixture of technical interrogation and box study tools. Chapter authors: Ronald Deibert, Colin Maclay, John Palfrey, Hal Roberts, Rafal Rohozinski, Nart Villeneuve, Ethan Zuckerman info Revolution and worldwide Politics sequence

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D. Evoking national security concerns, especially at times of civic unrest, as the justification for blocking specific Internet content and services. ment or specific government officials. b. Strict criteria pertaining to what is ‘‘acceptable’’ within the national media space, leading to the de-registration of sites that do not comply. c. Expanded use of defamation, slander, and ‘‘veracity’’ laws to deter bloggers and independent media from posting material critical of the govern-    Campaigns Information StateSponsored Third Generation a.

It is also questionable whether first-generation controls in countries like Burma, North Korea, and China are really sustainable in the long run. In China’s case, the floodgates may open sooner rather than later as the Chinese Internet itself becomes much more central to popular culture. First-generation filtering practices can produce economic and other social costs through collateral filtering and disincentives for foreign direct investment and tourism. As countries become more dependent on cyberspace for research, business, and other international communications, the friction introduced by filtering becomes increasingly unpopular, costly, and impractical.

1. 4 Control and Subversion in Russian Cyberspace 23 24 Ronald Deibert and Rafal Rohozinski A second practice associated with first-generation blocking is policing and surveillance of Internet cafe´s. In Uzbekistan, SNB officers monitor Internet cafe´s, often enlisting cafe´ owners to notify them of individual users who try to access ‘‘banned’’ sites. Many Uzbek Internet cafe´s now openly post notices that viewing illegal sites is subject to fine and arrest. On several occasions, ONI researchers have manually verified the surveillance.

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