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Extra resources for Access Technologies: DSL and Cable

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Data Digital Subscriber Line Access Technology 59 travels much more slowly in the upstream direction—in the 64- to 640-kbps range. For residential Web surfing, ADSL is an excellent alternative because the nature of the application is asymmetric. Many business applications require symmetrical bandwidth, however, so ADSL may not be adaptable in many cases. ADSL is most attractive for casual users, while SDSL is the most effective for businesses and telecommuters. Rate-adaptive DSL (RADSL) is a variation of ADSL.

ATM is used as the transport medium. lite is designed to retrain itself rapidly in the face of sudden impedance changes, as when a phone is lifted off-hook. 60 Access Technologies: DSL and Cable DSLAM The DSLAM separates voice-frequency signals from data at the CO end. The DSLAM aggregates data traffic from several loops into the backbone. In the case of ILEC-provided DSL, the backbone is usually ATM. Competitive access providers may use IP. ISPs and other network providers connect to the network with PVCs.

Many older switches were also two-wire, but all digital switches are four-wire, meaning the transmit and receive directions of a session are separated. A device known as a hybrid does the four-wire-to-two-wire conversion. A hybrid works on the principle of balancing the impedances of the two-wire and four-wire loops. As shown in Fig. 4, the four-wire transmit and receive sides of the hybrid feed into two of its ports. The two-wire cable pair and a balancing network feed into the other two ports.

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