By John Barnes

Ada 2012 is the newest model of the foreign regular for the programming language Ada. it truly is targeted ISO/IEC 8652:2012 (E) and is a brand new variation changing the 2005 model. the first targets for the recent model have been to additional improve its services relatively in these components the place its reliability and predictability are of serious price. Many vital new good points were integrated akin to these defining dynamic contracts and for dealing with multiprocessors and are built-in in the latest language framework in a chic and coherent demeanour. The Ada 2012 purpose describes not just the alterations from Ada 2005 but additionally the cause of the alterations. It starts off with an creation offering a common evaluation and this can be by means of seven chapters targeting contracts and elements; prolonged expressions; constitution and visibility; tasking and actual time; iterators and swimming pools; predefined library and bins. The booklet concludes with an epilogue mostly considering compatibility issues.

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Having introduced aspect specifications which are generally so much nicer than pragmas, it was decided to allow aspect specifications for all those situations where pragmas are used and an aspect specification makes sense (typically where it applies to an entity rather than a region of text). And then to make most of the pragmas obsolete. Before looking at the old pragmas concerned in detail, two general points are worth noting. The usual linear elaboration rules do not apply to the expression in an aspect specification.

For example, suppose we have a list container each of whose elements is a record containing two components of type Integer (P and Q say) and we want to add some global X to Q for all elements where P is a prime. Q + X)); end if; C := Next(C); end loop; Not only is this tedious but there is lots of scope for errors. Q + X; end if; end loop; The mechanism is thus similar to that introduced in the previous section for arrays. There are also a number of minor new facilities designed to simplify the use of containers.

The following are the obsolete pragmas with some examples of corresponding aspect specifications. The pragmas Inline, No_Return, and Pack are examples having Boolean aspects. We can now write procedure Do_It( ... ) with Inline; procedure Fail( ... ) with No_Return; type T is ... 2 As pec t sp ec ific at io ns 37 Some thought was given as to whether the name of the Pack aspect should be Packing rather than Pack because this gave better resonance in English. But the possible confusion in having a different name to that of the pragma overrode the thought of niceties of (human) language.

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