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Extra resources for Advances in corrosion control and materials in oil and gas production: papers from EUROCORR '97 and EUROCORR '98
This means that, with these assumptions, the cost of failure makes a small contribution to the NPV (Net Present Value) of the carbon steel plus inhibition option. This option should be preferred for this example. Of course more realistic assumptions should be made on a case by case basis and could result in an opposite conclusion. In particular, the downtime could be considerably longer than 30 days, additional costs could be incurred due to environmental or safety reasons, the uncertainties in the predictions may make the perceived risk unacceptable, etc.
Increasing the inhibitor concentration to I m m o l L -1. increases the critical wall shear stress to values above 250 Pa. The iron carbonate scales obtained in the experiments s u m m a r i s e d in Fig. 20 were investigated in the SEM. e. with increasing flow intensity. For a rough estimation of the effect of the flow intensity on the cracking Advances in Corrosion Control and Materials in Oil and Gas Production 46 12 15m MEA, 60 gL-1 Sx, 22-42 bar H2S, 110°C, 93-101 h I Open symbols: No FILC Filled symbols" Imax 130-190 #m 10E 8- •~ 900 ppm inhibitor 6- o 4 No inhibit m 2 \ • • • I 0 20 m 2 7 0 0 p p m inhibitor I I I 40 60 Wall shear stress at x = 3d (Pa) 100 80 Fig.
2). g. due to selective adsorption [5,6], insufficient inhibition [5,6] a n d / o r parent material inhomogeneities (initiation step I in Fig. g. due to intrinsic compressive growth stresses [2,7,8] (initiation step type 2 in Fig. 2), although initiation steps I and 2 can also be influenced by flow. All three steps have in common that they produce unprotected surface sites where deep or shallow pitting will occur. At these pits the flow is disturbed. These surface imperfections create local turbulences which prevent scale re-formation above critical flow intensities.
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