By Andre Wink

Quantity 2 this can be the second one of a projected sequence of 5 volumes facing the growth of Islam in al-Hind, or South and Southeast Asia. whereas the former quantity coated the 7th-11th centuries, this new quantity bargains largely with the Islamic conquest of the 11th-13th centuries. The e-book additionally presents an research of the newly rising organizational kinds of the Indo-Islamic nation in those centuries, migration styles which built among the center East, primary Asia and South Asia, maritime advancements within the Indian Ocean, and non secular swap. The comparative and world-historical standpoint that's complicated the following at the dynamic interplay among nomadic and agricultural societies should still make it of curiosity to all historians inquisitive about Asia during this interval.

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Masson Smith, 'Turanian Nomadism', p. 60. 11 Cf. A. M. Khazanov, 'Myths and Paradoxes of Nomadism', Archives Europeennes de Sociologie, XXII, 1 (1981), pp. 141-53. 50 THE COMING OF THE TURKS with its strong mythological element, assumed the Oxus to have been the dividing line between 'Iran' and 'Turan'. Iran represented urban administration; Turan the tribal cauldron. In fact, the ensuing frontier conflict was a creation of Iranian imperialism under Darius. In the sixth century BC the northern Scythians were still in close contact with the cities of Iran, through the Caucasus as well as the Greek ports of the southern Black Sea coast.

D. Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations (Oxford, 1986), p. 32, and adopted for the Turks by Golden, History of the Turkic Peoples, pp. 1-2. Such a community does not need to be able to refer to a common biological descent; in fact, they are always 'polyethnic' and political in character, with members who were born into it as well as others who joined it, a community of 'descent through tradition' and through recognition of the political leadership of a charismatic clan. 49 Cf. Al-Hind, I, p. 43.

Mter bringing Gupta rule to an end, Toramana became the paramount ruler of 32 Cf. AI-Hind, I, pp. 1l0-I, 114-5, 240. THE COMING OF THE TURKS 59 all of Northern and Central India. His successor Mihirakula is depicted as a great destroyer, especially hostile to Buddhism, and responsible for the destruction of Bamiyan, and with Shaivite leanings. A contemporary author, Procopius, writes that 'the Hephthalites are of Hunnish stock (ounnikon men ethnos) and bear the Hunnish name; however they do not mingle with any of the Huns known to us ....

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