By G. Hauke
This e-book offers the principles of fluid mechanics and delivery phenomena in a concise manner. it really is compatible as an creation to the topic because it includes many examples, proposed difficulties and a bankruptcy for self-evaluation.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena
N θ dA n v v S Fig. 12. Flux across a surface. 23), let us take the diﬀerential of area dA over the surface S of Fig. 12. 26) Integrating dQ over the whole surface, the ﬂow rate Q is calculated. 5. Since n is the outward normal vector to the surface, then outgoing ﬂow rates are positive and inward ﬂow rates, negative. 9 (Mean velocity). 11 (Volumetric ﬂow rate for uniform velocity v parallel to the normal vector of the surface A). In this case, the volumetric ﬂow rate is simply Q = vA The mean velocity is v¯ = Q/A = v r R v(r) z Fig.
6. For a liquid, the pressure is a mechanical variable. It can also be deﬁned as the average normal stress of the ﬂuid particle, technically speaking, the trace of the stress tensor. 7. For a gas, the pressure is a thermodynamic variable. In this case, the pressure cannot be deﬁned as the average normal stress of the ﬂuid particle. 1. 1. SI and non-SI common units of pressure. Name Symbol Equivalence pascal (SI) Pa 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 bar bar 1 bar = 105 Pa atmosphere (standard) atm 1 atm = 101 300 Pa meter of water mH2 O 1 mH2 O = 1 000g Pa millimeter of mercury mmHg kilogram-force per square centimeter (TS) kgf/cm 1 mmHg = 13 600g Pa 2 1 kgf/cm2 = 104 g Pa p p gag p atm p abs 0 Fig.
They are explained next. 3 (Streamline). The streamline is the line tangent at every point to the velocity vector. 4 Streamlines, Trajectories and Streaklines 21 v v v Fig. 6. The streamline is tangent to the velocity vector at every point. 4 (Trajectory). The trajectory or path is the track followed by a ﬂuid particle. Fig. 7. Trajectory. The ﬂuid particle follows the plotted line. 5 (Streakline). The streakline is the geometric place occupied by ﬂuid particles that have passed by the same point at previous times.
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