By H. J. Walker (auth.), H. Jesse Walker (eds.)

This quantity is the results of an initiative of the fee at the Coastal setting of the foreign Geographical Union. The preliminary inspiration from which the plan has proceeded was once offered on the twenty fourth overseas Geographical Congress in Japan in 1980. AUTHORSHIP AND insurance the entire articles during this quantity were written by way of experts accustomed to the coastal section mentioned. approximately all were ready by means of voters of the rustic (and, for that topic, even each one subregion) thought of. when it comes to exceptions (e.g. Suriname), the authors have performed fieldwork at the coast of the rustic they deal with. so that it will protect the "on-the-spot" integrity of the quantity, it was once determined to not fill within the blanks alongside the world's sea coast with library researched chapters. therefore, assurance is variable. approximately each coastal state in Europe is represented while for Africa and South the USA there are significant gaps. additionally, there are 2 circumstances of overlap. in relation to England (with a coastline of approximately 3,000 km) a complementary bankruptcy on Lincolnshire (with a coastline of simply one hundred fifty five km) is incorporated. the opposite case is the overall article at the Baltic Coast of the USSR that's supported via chapters on Estonia and Lithuania.

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On entering the strait the waves experience refraction and lose part of their energy. The capacity of the flow greatly decreases. This 51 results in an intensive sand accumulation on the seabed and on the shore. On a wide strip of dry land, lOs of old beach ridges have survived. Their structure is similar to that found on Volin Island in Poland. The east Baltic sediment flow deposits its load (500,000 m3 /yr) on a submerged shoal that protrudes from Cape Kolkasrags. However, the cape on the south coast has an annual erosion rate of several m, occasionally even of lOs of m.

J. ), Artificial Structures and Shorelines, 53-57. © 1988 by Kluwer Academic Publishers. 54 t N al'Va -- ••• ___ Sollie Ice Lake - -- . - Ancyl"", l o lce - - - l ilorina $eo Cliff J,. Horbor Fig. 1. Location of the shoreline during different stages of the Baltic Sea in Estonia. THE GULF OF FINLAND The Gulf of Finland is regarded as an extensive denudation area formed in the preglacial period on an outcrop area of soft sediments of the Vendian and Cambrian eras. At Narva-Joesuu the shoreline is a straight sandy beach, rimmed with dunes.

TABLE 2. 3 Southwest Finland Western Gulf of Finland Helsinki TOTAL Finland Apart from Helsinki the highest proportions of artificial shore are to be found at the extremities of the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland. This is partly due to the incidence of soft sediments in the deltaic environments found in these areas and partly to the large seasonal fluctuations in sea level. The great majority of artificial shores consist of port installations. Along the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia and at the far end of the Gulf of Finland it has been necessary to strengthen the shore since there are few rocky shores.

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