By Giampietro Gasparini
Specialist laboratory and scientific researchers from world wide overview the way to layout and evaluation reports of tumor markers and think about their use in breast melanoma sufferers. The authors hide either the most important advances in subtle molecular equipment and the state of the art in traditional prognostic and predictive symptoms. one of the issues mentioned are the relevance of rigorous examine layout and directions for the validation stories of recent biomarkers, gene expression profiling via tissue microarrays, adjuvant systemic treatment, and using estrogen, progesterone, and epidermal progress issue receptors as either prognostic and predictive symptoms. Highlights comprise the review of HER2 and EGFR kinfolk, of p53, and of UPA/PAI-1; the detection of infrequent cells in blood and marrow; and the detection and research of soluble, circulating markers.
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Extra resources for Biomarkers in Breast Cancer (Cancer Drug Discovery and Development)
Kemp et al. have described an image analysis system that is based on double-immunofluorescence staining with the marker of interest and epithelial cell markers. In this system, tumor epithelial cells can be automatically detected, and therefore staining intensity of only the epithelial cells is measured quantitatively. This has resulted in scoring that has a wider dynamic range than the usual IHC analysis (10). 7. 1. Use in the Clinical Laboratory In a typical reference laboratory setting, batch processing of clinical cases using a tissue array would be quite possible.
The only drawback stems from its small footprint that allows loading of only 20 cases at a time. Theoretically the array generated using this automated system should be much superior to manually constructed ones owing to its Z-axis control—that is, control of the depth of seeding of cores into the array block. However, because it also creates a compression effect, this potential advantage is lost. Although one could heat the recipient block, as described by Jensen for manual arrayer, the block holding mechanism and moving parts in the ATA27 make it difficult to attach a heating strip.
Reproducibility of the staining reaction, as well as the speed and reliability of the interpretation, is improved, as all the tissues are on the same slide. 7. Consecutive slides can be stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for morphology or with other antibodies against the same or other molecular targets. This permits comparison of multiple targets in virtually identical, histologically highly controlled regions of the tissues. As there are many excellent reviews on technical aspects of TMA (1–4), this chapter focuses on topics related to TMA construction in multicenter trial setting and practical guidelines.
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