By T. Kuhn

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We doubled the number of neutral messengers by postulating a new object, a "heavy photon" (called the Z°), which would then make up the desired triplet with W + , W~, Z° as messengers. The new "messenger" Z° would produce a new type of weak force between left-handed objects only: for example. (P + O L -> (P + O L or (p + v)L -> (p + v)L, or (v + p z ) -> (v + p) L , or (n + e") L -> (n + e") L , etc. This was fine, but with Z° treated this way one had lost all trace of unification of electromagnetism and the weak forces.

8 (a) The theorists (from left to right) Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg were awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physics for their theoretical contribution to the unification of the weak and electromagnetic forces, (b) Carlo Rubbia (left) and Simon van der Meer (right) were awarded the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to the experimental verification of the existence of the W and Z bosons which were first produced and detected at CERN in 1983.

Specifically, a new antiproton beam was created using what has now come to be called an antiproton accumulator. The antiproton p annihilates the p, producing a total energy in excess of what was needed for producing W + , W~ and Z°. This epic experiment by Van der Meer who engineered the p beam and Carlo Rubbia who engineered the whole enterprise won the first Nobel prize for CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) in 1984. Experiments are now planned at the new SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) and the forthcoming LEP accelerators at CERN to measure the Z° mass to one-twentieth of one percent.

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