By Jacques Ferlay, Clarisse Héry, Philippe Autier (auth.), Christopher Li (eds.)
As the commonest melanoma clinically determined between ladies world-wide, breast melanoma is a affliction of substantial public well-being value. The variety of confirmed and hypothesized chance elements for breast melanoma exceeds that of the other melanoma leading to a wealthy, yet complex and sometimes conflicting literature at the epidemiology of this affliction. Our knowing of things that give a contribution to breast melanoma hazard, in addition to the biology and molecular foundation for this universal ailment, has tremendously elevated over the last few many years. This publication presents a finished evaluation and significant evaluation of the epidemiology literature on all significant points of breast melanoma prevalence and mortality, etiology, and results. Chapters are written via across the world well-known leaders within the box and supply a well timed assessment of conventional etiologic hazard elements, in addition to extra lately evaluated exposures. a number of chapters also are dedicated to scientific facets of breast melanoma together with screening, analysis and therapy, and survival. for that reason, this can be the main up to date and entire publication on breast melanoma epidemiology available.
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Additional info for Breast Cancer Epidemiology
The phenotypic characteristics of familial tumors are similar to those of premenopausal tumors in that they tend to exhibit a more aggressive biology. Although differences in tumor stage at diagnosis are not pronounced (Eerola et al. 2001; Rennert et al. 2007), BRCA1-associated and BRCA2-associated breast cancers are characterized by a higher tumor grade relative to sporadic tumors (Marcus et al. 1996; Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium 1997; Palacios et al. 2005). I. I. Li distinctions have been noted between BRCA2-associated tumors and sporadic tumors (Lakhani et al.
Int J Cancer 97:72–81 Pisani P, Parkin DM, Bray Fl, Ferlay J (1999) Estimates of the worldwide mortality from twentyfive major cancers in 1990. Implications for prevention, and projections of future burden. Int J Cancer 83:18–29 Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, et al. (eds) (2004) SEER cancer statistics review, 1975–2001. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. cancer. gov/csr/1975_2001/ Sankaranarayanan R, Black RJ, Parkin DM (eds) (1988) Cancer survival in developing countries, IARC Scientific Publications No.
Pronounced differences in the epidemiology and clinical profiles of ERþ and ER– breast cancers have been noted for decades (McGuire 1975; Leclercq et al. 2002) and suggest vastly different tumor etiologies. Breast cancer risk factors related to endogenous hormone exposure, such as parity and age at first live birth, are more strongly associated with risk of ERþ breast cancer, while risk factors for ER– disease are more likely to involve non-hormonal mechanisms (Potter et al. 1995; Huang et al. 2000; Ma et al.
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