By Tansen Sen
Relatives among China and India underwent a dramatic transformation from Buddhist-dominated to commerce-centered exchanges within the 7th to 15th centuries. The unfolding of this change, its motives, and wider ramifications are tested during this masterful research of the altering styles of interplay among the 2 most crucial cultural spheres in Asia.
Tansen Sen deals a brand new viewpoint on Sino-Indian kin throughout the Tang dynasty (618-907), arguing that the interval is awesome not just for non secular and diplomatic exchanges but additionally for the method in which China emerged as a middle of Buddhist studying, perform, and pilgrimage. ahead of the 7th century, the chinese language clergy--given the spatial hole among the sacred Buddhist global of India and the peripheral China--suffered from a "borderland complex." The emergence of China as a middle of Buddhism had profound implications on non secular interactions among the 2 nations and is stated through Sen as one of many major factors for the weakening of China's non secular appeal towards India. even as, the expansion of indigenous chinese language Buddhist faculties and teachings retrenched the necessity for doctrinal enter from India. a close exam of the failure of Buddhist translations produced in the course of the track dynasty (960-1279) demonstrates that those advancements have been answerable for the unraveling of non secular bonds among the 2 international locations and the termination of the Buddhist section of Sino-Indian family.
Sen proposes that adjustments in non secular interactions have been paralleled by way of alterations in advertisement exchanges. for many of the 1st millennium, buying and selling actions among India and China have been heavily attached with and sustained throughout the transmission of Buddhist doctrines. The 11th and 12th centuries, despite the fact that, witnessed dramatic alterations within the styles and constitution of mercantile job among the 2 nations. Secular bulk and comfort items changed Buddhist ritual goods, maritime channels changed the overland Silk street because the so much ecocnomic conduits of industrial trade, and lots of of the retailers concerned have been fans of Islam instead of Buddhism. in addition, regulations to inspire international exchange instituted by means of the chinese language govt and the Indian kingdoms contributed to the intensification of industrial task among the 2 international locations and reworked the China-India buying and selling circuit right into a key section of cross-continental trade.
Buddhism, international relations, and Trade brings a clean figuring out to cross-cultural Sino-Indian encounters, elucidating for the 1st time major alterations within the non secular, advertisement, and diplomatic interactions among the 2 nations.
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Extra info for Buddhism, Diplomacy, and Trade: The Realignment of Sino-Indian Relations, 600-1400
690-705) attempt to portray herself as a righteous ruler of the Buddhist realm. The discussion of these issues will demonstrate that the intense SinoIndian exchanges during the Tang period were accompanied by the transformation of China into a sacred Buddhist land. Consequently, Buddhist clergy from neighboring kingdoms and from the leading monasteries i n India frequented C h i n a either i n search of doctrines or to make pilgrimages at sacred Buddhist sites. While the recogni tion of C h i n a as a legitimate Buddhist center abated the borderland complex among the Chinese clergy, it also prompted the growth of indigenous schools and practices, thereby diminishing the need for spiritual input from India.
Shortly afterwards, an Imperial decree [from the Tang court] ordered [them] to pro ceed to Y u e z h o u . There, using sugarcane, they were able to make sugar. Everything was successfully accomplished. 104 105 The above event not only demonstrates the involvement of Bud dhist monks i n diplomatic contacts between China and India, but also informs us of their role i n the transmission of the sugar-making tech nology. The impact of this technological transfer on later Chinese his tory and society has been noted i n the works of Christian Daniels and Sucheta M a z u m d a r .
It will provide empirical evidence demonstrat ing the endurance of Buddhist doctrines in India and China and the continued interactions between the monastic communities of the two regions. In fact, the data from the Song period suggests that the count of Buddhist monks travelling between India and C h i n a in the tenth and eleventh centuries may have even surpassed the exchanges dur ing the Tang period. Similarly, Indian texts translated under the Song dynasty outnumbered those completed under the preceding dynasties.
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