By John R. Evans M.D., D.Phil. (Oxon.), F.A.C.P., F.R.C.P.(C) (auth.), John O. Godden M.D., C.M., M.Sc.(Med.), F.R.C.P.(C), M.A.(Educ. Th.) (eds.)

Viewed as contributions to carrying on with scientific schooling, many medical conferences disappoint simply because, even if software committees plan with care, assemble very good college and disclose them to their friends, to different physicians and to accommodate employees. the impression is evanescent. conferences dissipate a lot specialist time and public cash to stimulate the really few who attend. for that reason the dictum "Hold a symposium and achieve a couple of hundred; circulation a complaints and succeed in the realm. " regardless of this dictum, many organizers of clinical conferences shrink back from the booklet of complaints. insisting that academics won't take part in the event that they need to organize publishable manuscripts and, in the event that they do conform to arrange them, will hold up for months or, on occasion, won't come via in any respect. besides the fact that, this can be a question of association and resolution: e. g . . a few software chairmen make the check of costs and honoraria contingent upon receipt of a publishable manuscript. Cox and his colleagues in Australia went one greater: they equipped the 1st foreign melanoma convention in Sydney in November 1972 and released a two-volume complaints ("Melanoma and pores and skin melanoma" and 'The Nature of Leukemia") earlier than the conferences started. As Dr. Cox notes, "This preprinting of the whole papers freed each one speaker from the need of recounting huge amounts of information in order that every one paper will be opened extra quickly and provocatively after which defended in dialogue" (Report of the overseas melanoma convention, Med J an inventory, I: 12-33, June 24, 1972).

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Over the years there has been no demonstrable increase and this is confirmed by the national death-rate figures. Table III shows that in the group as a whole there is a sex difference in cancer incidence. *Lecturer in Pediatric Oncology. The Department of Child Health, University of Manchester and Children's Hospital. Manchester. 21 TABLE I Manchester Children's Tumor Registry Cases Included 1954-1968 (Assessed 1972) Category Leukemias Non-leukemic reticuloendothelial Gliomas Sympathetic Retinoblastomas Connective tissue Renal Gonadal Teratomas Epithelial Ewing's Rare miscellaneous Third ventricular (clinical diagnosis only) Unclassified Total Alive Dead Total 11 58 90 25 43 90 28 8 34 38 2 30 6 3 454 88 193 90 8 101 59 6 16 25 26 18 4 29 465 146 283 115 51 191 87 14 50 63 28 48 466 1117 1583 TABLE II Manchester Children's Tumor Registry Average Annual Incidence of Tumors in Children (Population under 15 years - 1 million) Leukemia Non-leukemic reticuloendothelial Gliomas Sympathetic nervous system tumors Retinoblastomas Connective tissue tumors Wilms' tumors Other nephrogenital ridge tumors Teratomas Epithelial tumors Ewing's tumors Miscellaneous tumors Malignant unclassified tumors Total 29 9 17 8 3 12 5 4 4 2 4 2 100 10 32 TABLE III Sex Differences Category Leukemias Lymphosarcomas Hodgkin's disease Medulloblastomas Neuroblastomas Embryonic sarcomas Other connective tissue tumors Presacral teratomas Others Total Males Females 253 32 31 54 67 39 71 3 329 212 13 16 20 35 27 54 II 316 879 704 If we now look at the subgroups in more detail, the pattern comes through more clearly.

Schneider in 1958, for example, questioned the need for postoperative radiation in children with well-localized and totally removed tumors s . Many sought to refine therapeutic programs, but no one centre - however large - can accumulate enough patients to study systematically the several points that required elucidation. DESIGN OF THE NATIONAL STUDY In 1969, investigators who were participating in national co-operative trials banded together to form the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group so that they could accumulate large numbers of patients and reach statistically meaningful results at the earliest possible moment.

In children with localized, resected tumors, controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the contribution of chemotherapy. 41 NEONATAL RENAL TUMORS 1. F. K. (C)* The tumor registry at the Hospital for Sick Children (HSC) from 1924 to 1972 lists 43 renal tumors which presented when the patient was less than one year of age. Of the six tumors that presented in the neonatal period (when the patient was less than one month of age), five belonged to the entity known variously as fetal mesodermal hamartoma (FMH), congenital mesoblastic nephroma, or leiomyoma of the kidney.

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