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1. Coefficients of modified Wheerler's formula The substrate has to be highly conductive and connected to ground in order to prevent the penetration of the electrical field. The pattern of the deep substrate trenches is the same as the polysilicon patterned ground shield. However, deep trench substrates are not available in most of CMOS processes. In general an octagonal spiral inductor with patterned ground shield or highly resistive substrate is often preferable in CMOS process for its area efficiency and quality factor.

5. Resistor There are many types of resistors available in CMOS processes. Based on the material used they can be categorized into four groups, metal resistors, polysilicon resistors, diffusion resistors and well resistors. Both metal resistors and polysilicon resistors have low variation with voltage, but diffusion resistors and well resistors have a strong dependence on voltage. g. 10 to 80 milli-ohms per square. Because of such low resistance, metal resistors are usually used to track the metal resistance change over process and temperature.

Although the auxiliary circuits consume addition power, reduce the gain of the primary circuit and contribute additional noise, these impacts are small compared to the potential linearity improvement. &. 5. 4, Harmonic cancellation with imperfections Although the unwanted harmonics of the signals can be cancelled completely in theory, the cancellation is limited by imperfections in real life. The degree of the cancellation is usually determined by the mismatch of the input signals and mismatch of the circuits' gain.

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