By Norman I. Krinsky, Susan T. Mayne, Helmut Sies
The 1st resource to gather the newest facts linking carotenoids to human health and wellbeing and affliction, this stimulating reference stories the function of carotenoids within the prevention of continual affliction and studies step forward stories from greater than forty box gurus at the most modern learn. The booklet finds the latest findings in regards to the use of carotenoids within the prevention of cancers and sunburn, in addition to eye, center, vascular, and photosensitivity ailments, and evaluates the aptitude poisonous results of high-dose carotenoids in either people who smoke and drinkers. It additionally makes a speciality of pioneering observations from observational epidemiological and scientific experiences, in addition to intervention trials on carotenoids.
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Additional info for Carotenoids in Health and Disease (Oxidative Stress and Disease)
8. Englert G, Aakermann T, Liaaen-Jensen S. NMR studies on natural all-trans (90 Z, 110 Z)-(3R,30 S,50 R,60 R)-pyrrhoxanthin, an acetylenic C37-skeletal nor-carotenoid butenolide. Magn Reson Chem 1993; 31:910– 915. Bartlett L, Klyne W, Mose WP, Scopes PM, Galasko G, Mallams AK, Weedon BCL, Szabolcs J, To´th G. Optical rotatory dispersion of carotenoids. J Chem Soc C 1969; 2527– 2544. Mu¨ller RK, Bernhard K, Mayer H, Ru¨ttimann A, Vecchi M. Beitrag zur Analytik und Synthese von 3-Hydroxy-4-oxocarotinoiden.
For a trans bond the largest substituents are on the opposite side. The more recent E/Z designation, based on the priority rules referred to for R/S absolute configuration in Sec. VI, may also be used and is unambiguous. In most cases cis-carotenoids have Z-configuration and transcarotenoids E configuration. However, for in-chain substituted carotenoids, including pyrrhoxanthin (7), cis bonds represent the E-configuration. C. , the Dunaliella case discussed below. Bacteria living at extreme conditions frequently produce many cis isomers besides the all-trans carotenoid (18,19).
In epimers only one chiral center has an opposite configuration. Typical examples of epimers are lutein (10) and epilutein (18) with opposite configuration at C-30 only. Allenes (with two adjacent carbon – carbon double bonds connected by the same carbon), provided they are substituted in an appropriate way (two different Copyright © 2004 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. Basic Carotenoid Chemistry 17 substituents at the two ends of the system), also represent a chiral center, actually a chiral axis. An example is neoxanthin (19 and 20) with different chirality for the allene in these two structures (hydrogen pointing up or down at the allene).
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