By Paul N. Rylander
Catalytic Hydrogenation over Platinum Metals
summary: Catalytic Hydrogenation over Platinum Metals
Read or Download Catalytic Hydrogenation Over Platinum Metals PDF
Similar general & reference books
Extra so than any of the opposite significant teams of parts within the periodic desk, the transition metals have formed human background and feature been the workhorses of undefined. the invention of metal copper ended the Stone Age and ushered within the Bronze Age. Alloys of iron (especially metal) later took over, and the Iron Age changed the Bronze Age.
CHEMISTRY & CHEMICAL REACTIVITY, 7e, combines thorough guideline with strong multimedia instruments to offer you a deeper figuring out of common chemistry options. The ebook has a long-standing attractiveness for logical association; macro to micro orientation; a solid paintings software; and state-of-the paintings media, that is elevated within the new version.
Content material: ladies within the chemical professions : an outline / Frankie Wood-Black, L. Shannon Davis -- Susan B. Butts, director of exterior know-how : significant chemical compounds production / Arlene A. Garrison -- Anne DeMasi, regulatory expert, a family-oriented occupation direction / Jacqueline Erickson -- L. Shannon Davis, chief of approach learn and improvement : adventures of an business chemist / L.
- Gay-Lussac: Scientist and Bourgeois
- Doe Fundamentals Handbook Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Concepts and Applications for Medicinal Chemistry
- Ultracentrifugation in Biochemistry
Extra info for Catalytic Hydrogenation Over Platinum Metals
Chem. 24, 847 (1952). , J. Prakt. Chem. 149, 330 (1937). 3 Reaction Conditions The successful outcome of a catalytic hydrogenation depends upon the propitious choice of a number of factors. Foremost a m o n g these is the proper choice of a catalyst, a choice most easily made by uncovering a suitable precedent. Other factors that include temperature, pressure, agitation, a m o u n t of catalyst, m o d e of addition, and solvent may also have a decisive influence. Fortunately, acceptable results can often be obtained throughout such a wide range of conditions that, unless there is a need to optimize a process, little attention need be given to these factors.
1. Acidic Media An acidic solvent is frequently useful in nullifying the inhibiting effect of amine substrates (Devereux et al, 1957) or of amines formed in reduction of oximes (Breitner et al, 1959b), nitro c o m p o u n d s (Oelschläger, 1956), nitriles (Rosenmund and Pfannkuch, 1923), or pyridines (Freifelder, 1963). All acidic media are not necessarily equivalent; AT-methylpyrrole was reduced easily over platinum oxide in absolute alcohol containing one equivalent of hydrochloric acid (Craig and Hixon, 1931), but the reduction was very sluggish in glacial acetic acid (Wibaut, 1925).
Härtung, W. , and Daniels, Η. , / . Org. Chem. 18, 229 (1953). , J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 35, 475 (1958). , J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 37, 11 (1960). Zakumbaeva, G. , and Sokol'skii, D. , Tr. Inst. Khim. Nauk, Akad. Nauk Kaz. SSR 7, 3 (1961). , Chem. Ber. 44, 2305 (1911). 2 Hydrogenation Reactors All hydrogenation reactors serve the purpose of bringing hydrogen, the catalyst, and the substrate into contact in the absence of air. Some sort of mixing is provided to increase the rate of contact between the reactants and catalyst, and to increase the rate of diffusion of the products away from the catalyst surface.