By Paul N. Rylander

Catalytic Hydrogenation over Platinum Metals

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Chem. 24, 847 (1952). , J. Prakt. Chem. 149, 330 (1937). 3 Reaction Conditions The successful outcome of a catalytic hydrogenation depends upon the propitious choice of a number of factors. Foremost a m o n g these is the proper choice of a catalyst, a choice most easily made by uncovering a suitable precedent. Other factors that include temperature, pressure, agitation, a m o u n t of catalyst, m o d e of addition, and solvent may also have a decisive influence. Fortunately, acceptable results can often be obtained throughout such a wide range of conditions that, unless there is a need to optimize a process, little attention need be given to these factors.

1. Acidic Media An acidic solvent is frequently useful in nullifying the inhibiting effect of amine substrates (Devereux et al, 1957) or of amines formed in reduction of oximes (Breitner et al, 1959b), nitro c o m p o u n d s (Oelschläger, 1956), nitriles (Rosenmund and Pfannkuch, 1923), or pyridines (Freifelder, 1963). All acidic media are not necessarily equivalent; AT-methylpyrrole was reduced easily over platinum oxide in absolute alcohol containing one equivalent of hydrochloric acid (Craig and Hixon, 1931), but the reduction was very sluggish in glacial acetic acid (Wibaut, 1925).

Härtung, W. , and Daniels, Η. , / . Org. Chem. 18, 229 (1953). , J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 35, 475 (1958). , J. Am. Oil Chemists' Soc. 37, 11 (1960). Zakumbaeva, G. , and Sokol'skii, D. , Tr. Inst. Khim. Nauk, Akad. Nauk Kaz. SSR 7, 3 (1961). , Chem. Ber. 44, 2305 (1911). 2 Hydrogenation Reactors All hydrogenation reactors serve the purpose of bringing hydrogen, the catalyst, and the substrate into contact in the absence of air. Some sort of mixing is provided to increase the rate of contact between the reactants and catalyst, and to increase the rate of diffusion of the products away from the catalyst surface.

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