By Phillip Manning

Sleek lifestyles is made of a mind-boggling array of fabrics. an easy consuming cup, for instance, could be made from Styrofoam, paper, or glass, reckoning on the drinker's wishes in the mean time. domestic garage cupboards will be made from steel, wooden, or plastic. house shuttles are assembled from silicon, metal, and 1000s of alternative fabrics. All of these things owe their homes to the chemical bonds among the atoms that make up the substance. ''Chemical Bonds'' examines the character of the chemical bonds, answering primary questions about how they shape, how they're damaged, and the way they assist outline lifestyles as we all know it.

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The tightly bound ions in a sodium chloride crystal means the temperature must be raised quite high before the ions gain enough kinetic energy to escape the rigid crystalline structure. The pure elements of sodium and chlorine, however, are composed of electrically neutral atoms. And because there is no ionic bonding, they melt at much lower temperatures. One peculiarity of salt (and other substances with atoms locked in a crystalline structure by ionic bonds) is that individual molecules of sodium chloride do not exist at room temperature.

The biggest of these was the absence of a firm scientific foundation that left many unanswered questions: What was unique about the noble gases’ filled electron shells? Why did two electrons satisfy the n=1 shell? Why did it take eight when colds. The medical profession attacked his conclusions force-­ fully. Often, both sides cited the same studies. The studies show that vitamin C does not prevent colds, said the doctors. Yes, they do, said Pauling. Pauling finally wearied of trying to convince medical pro-­ fessionals about the benefits of megadoses of vitamin C and took his case directly to the public.

They are called the halogens. Two of the elements most eager to react and exchange an electron are cesium, which is near the bottom left of the periodic table, and fluorine, at the top of the halogen group. Cesium wants to give up an electron and fluorine wants one badly. So, when cesium and fluorine are brought together, the result is what chemists like to call a vigorous reaction. Others might call it an explosion. The first two chapters of this book have examined the characteristics of ­stand-­alone atoms.

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