By Ian William Farmer (auth.)

Coal Mine buildings is predicated on a six-year research, conducted on the college of Newcastle upon Tyne among 1976 and 1982 and financed by means of the nationwide Coal Board and the eu Coal and metal neighborhood (Projects 7220 - ACj806 and 7220 - ACj814), into the behaviour of lower than­ flooring openings in British coal mines. the unique paintings has been elevated to incorporate different correct British and overseas facts. How­ ever, it continues to be, intentionally, a private view in response to a selected - albeit vast - study programme. It doesn't faux to be an entire description of the behaviour of shafts, tunnels, rooms, pillars and lengthy­ wall excavations. Nor does it got down to supply a guide for layout. the explicit target is to teach, usually via attention of fairly special laboratory and box information, how the saw functionality of a few below­ flooring constructions in the course of mining, could be defined by way of the deformation features of the rocks which encompass them. The paintings is predicated on observatiollB by means of many engineers operating for the nationwide Coal Board's Mining examine and improvement institution, and through examine affiliates and postgraduate scholars on the college of Newcastle upon Tyne. i'm thankful to all of them, yet i'm relatively indebted to Dr A. H. Wilson and Mr M. J. Bell of the nationwide Coal Board, to Dr P. F. R. Altounyan, Dr P. Garritty, Dr P. Holmes, and Dr P. D. Shelton previously of the college of Newcastle upon Tyne, to Dr R. N.

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5. The end constraint on the pillar will depend on the relative strengths and stiffness of the pillar, roof and floor rocks. If the roof and/or floor Fig. 7 Types of deformation observed in potash pillars at a depth of about 1100m. Note that the pillar with the large width-height ratio (a) while showing signs of fracture at the sides also exhibits signs of ductile behaviour. 3 (photograph C. Wiggett). 54 Coal Mine Structures rocks are stiffer than the pillar, then lateral restraint during load transfer will inhibit expansion of the pillar and impose constraint.

Boreholes (Fig. 9) were drilled horizontally into the pillars normal to the direction of advance over half the face width. On an adjacent face, boreholes were drilled parallel to the face direction. 7 m. In addition a wire was passed through the pillar to measure overall deformation. Typical pillar deformation observations in pillar line NO (Fig. 9) above K4 face are illustrated in Fig. 1 O. All pillar deformations followed a similar path and those over the adjacent face, although measured parallel to the face line, did not differ significantly.

8 and it leads to an interesting conclusion. (2 + rx - fJ)/2 has a magnitude close to unity where the exponent has been derived from a study of pillar failures in mines. In other words there is a limited size effect. It is only in laboratory experiments that the size effect is significant. 5. The end constraint on the pillar will depend on the relative strengths and stiffness of the pillar, roof and floor rocks. If the roof and/or floor Fig. 7 Types of deformation observed in potash pillars at a depth of about 1100m.

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