By D. W. Quinion, G. R. Quinion

This consultant presents information regarding the evaluate of pumping and walling platforms for extracting groundwater. Contents comprise research of soil and groundwater, dewatering, security, trench and underground excavations

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Sheet piled walls are rarely used at depths exceeding 20 m . Sheet piled coffer-dams are used when a permanent exter­ nal drainage a n d / o r waterproofing membrane is specified for the outside of the perimeter walls to the per­ manent works. Such permanent drainage provision rriay be provided by hollow blocks or proprietary sheet 34 drainage materials and the water extracted from a drainage pipe at the lower level. Co-ordination is needed between any temporary construction dewatering provi­ sions and the operation a permanent system.

These machines have a full tunnel sec­ tion cutting face with holes for the injection of bentonite and the extraction of a displaced soil and bentonite mix­ ture which is then pumped to the surface. Some machines can also crush small boulders. The use of such machines makes tunnelling independent of groundwater condi­ tions. However, when it is not possible to use these machines the groundwater must be countered using grout ahead methods, partial wet face support or compressed air. The selected volume and pressure of compressed air ideally minimize the inflow of water and the outflow of 8 air.

To be economic and effective the soil conditions should be no more permeable than those of sands and should establish the required drawdown of the ground­ water level in three days. If this is not achieved then addi­ tional measure may be necessary such as the use of ver­ tical sand drains to improve the drawdown on the far side of the trench, or the installation of such drainage in the trench formation (Figs 13 and 14). 30 T t r 0 n c h • i — r + Stage 2 Pumping down in progress Stage 1 Wellpoints main and pumps being installed Double-sided wellpoint systems For wide or deep trenches and for soils with variable permeabilities in different layers or regions, it may be necessary to install a wellpoint system along each side of the trench.

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