By John W. Bieber, Eugenia Eroshenko, Paul Evenson, Erwin O. Flückiger, Reinald Kallenbach (auth.), J. W. Bieber, E. Eroshenko, P. Evenson, E. O. Flückiger, R. Kallenbach (eds.)

The 12 months 1998 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the discovery of the neutron display screen, a key learn device within the box of area physics and solar-terrestrial kinfolk. In honor of this party a workshop entitled 'Cosmic Rays and Earth' used to be equipped to study the detection of cosmic rays on the floor and within the decrease surroundings of Earth, together with the impact that this radiation has at the terrestrial setting. a different concentration was once the position of neutron displays within the research of this radiation, at the technological know-how enabled through the original dataset of the global community of neutron displays, and on carrying on with possibilities to take advantage of those facts to resolve notable difficulties. This e-book is the primary made from that workshop, integrating the contribu­ tions of all individuals. Following a normal precis of the workshop ready by way of the editors, the amount leads off with a keynote article by means of Professor John Simpson describing his invention of the neutron display screen in 1948 and the early clinical discoveries made with this instrument.

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Additional resources for Cosmic Rays and Earth: Proceedings of an ISSI Workshop, 21–26 March 1999, Bern, Switzerland

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Although the thresholds for the Milagrito data are under study, it is fair to assume that interplanetary protons in excess of 10 GeV were present. Presumably, the maximum proton energies were considerably higher. 44 1. M. RYAN ET AL. Milagrito and Climax Data on Nov 6, 1997 0 5 10 15 UT time (hours) 20 25 Figure 2. The intensity-time profiles of the 6 November 1997 GLE (top to bottom): the Climax NM, the single-PMT (high threshold) Milagrito scaler and the 100-PMT Milagrito scaler. , 1999a) to be less than 5 solar radii, consistent with estimates by (Kahler, 1994) for other GLE events.

This precursor and the subsequent increase were studied by Cramp et al. (1993) using a comprehensive set of NM data plus data from ground-level and underground muon detectors (Swinson and Shea, 1990). 4, softening considerably above 5 GV. The solar proton flux had to extend up to 20 GeV to produce a positive signal in the muon detectors, but could not have extended significantly above 30 GV, the threshold of SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES 45 the Socorro underground muon detector (Swinson and Shea, 1990).

Presumably, the maximum proton energies were considerably higher. 44 1. M. RYAN ET AL. Milagrito and Climax Data on Nov 6, 1997 0 5 10 15 UT time (hours) 20 25 Figure 2. The intensity-time profiles of the 6 November 1997 GLE (top to bottom): the Climax NM, the single-PMT (high threshold) Milagrito scaler and the 100-PMT Milagrito scaler. , 1999a) to be less than 5 solar radii, consistent with estimates by (Kahler, 1994) for other GLE events. The high-energy spectrum was constrained to be soft above 5 GeV (spectral index sp ~ -7), implying that the hard spectrum deduced from interplanetary measurements breaks significantly (Falcone and Ryan, 1999).

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