By Shuja Nawaz

In response to 30 years of study and research, this definitive ebook is a profound, multi-layered, and ancient research of the character and position of the Pakistan military within the country's polity in addition to its turbulent dating with the U.S.. Shuja Nawaz examines the military and Pakistan in either peace and conflict. utilizing many hitherto unpublished fabrics from the records of the us, the uk, and the final Headquarters of the Pakistan military, in addition to interviews with key army and political figures in Pakistan and the us, he sheds mild not just at the Pakistan military and its US connections but additionally on Pakistan as a key Muslim kingdom in a single of the world's hardest neighborhoods. In doing so, he lays naked key evidence approximately Pakistan's various wars with India and its many rounds of political musical chairs, in addition to the Kargil clash of 1999. He then attracts classes from this background which may aid Pakistan finish its wars inside and create a stabler political entity.

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3. ’ Paper presented at the National Defence College, 26 September 1998. 4. ) Mirza Aslam Beg, ‘The Powerbrokers of Democracy,’ T h e N a tio n , Lahore, 6 April 2007. 5. Kamal Azfar, ‘Doctrine of Necessity,’ T he N a tio n , 2 April 2006. 6. Kamal Azfar, ‘The Swing of the Pendulum,’ T h e N a tio n , 10 September 2006. 7. In an interview with the BBC on Saturday, 17 November 2007 he declared ‘Have I done anything constitutionally illegal? Yes, I did it on November 3,’ he said, referring to imposition of emergency rule.

Notification no. 21/2//61-Public, 7 March 1963 as amended from time to time. Corrected up to 26 June 1968. 27. Notification. Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Interior, Islamabad, 6 July 1970. Signed by AMS Ahmad. 28. Revised Warrant of Precedence. Government of Pakistan, Cabinet Secretariat, Cabinet Division. No. 7-2-2003-Min. I. Islamabad, 31 October 2006. i In H is t o r y B o u n d The Pakistan Army of today is rooted in the ancient history of the region that now constitutes Pakistan, and is bound as much by the geography of the region as by the forces that contributed to the culture and civilization of the Indian subcontinent.

Dr Parvez Hasan, ‘State and Pakistan Economy: Where have we come from? ’ 19. Ibid. 20. Mahmood-ul-Hasan Khan, ‘Defence Expenditure and Macroeconomic Stabilization: Causality Evidence from Pakistan,’ State Bank of Pakistan, Working Papers, No. 6, December 2004. 21. World Bank W o r ld D e v e lo p m e n t In d ic a to r s 2 0 0 6 . 2 2 . Saadat Deger and Ron Smith, ‘Military expenditure and Growth in Less-Developed Countries,’ T h e J o u r n a l o f C o n flic t R e s o lu tio n , 27 June 1983.

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