By F. Kauffmann (auth.), W. Arber, W. Braun, R. Haas, W. Henle, P. H. Hofschneider, N. K. Jerne, P. Koldovský, H. Koprowski, O. Maaløe, R. Rott, H. G. Schweiger, M. Sela, L. Svruček, P. K. Vogt, E. Wecker (eds.)

The expression of many bacterial genes adapts itself in a virtually in­ stantaneous and reversible approach to particular environmental adjustments. extra in particular, the focus of a few metabolites, a functionality of the quantities of enzymes desirous about their synthesis or degradation, in flip retroacts at the price of synthesis of those enzymes. The genetic bases for this legislation have been confirmed by way of JACOB and MONOD (1961). those authors additionally confirmed how the identified parts of those regulatory mechanisms should be attached right into a big variety of circuits endowed with any wanted measure of balance, as a way to account for primarily irreversible methods like differentiation (MONOD and JACOB, 1961). the overall rules utilized by JACOB and MONOD of their research of unfavorable law have been prolonged to optimistic legislation by way of ENGLESBERG et al. (1965). An self sufficient process approved the invention of confident controls in temperate bacteriophages (see under, III). every one regulate operation is mediated by way of a couple of complementary genetic components (hereafter known as "control cell"): a regulate gene which produces a l regulate (or regulator) protein and a keep watch over website that is the objective for the regulator protein. destructive keep an eye on implies that the keep watch over protein (repressor) prevents gene expression. One bargains with confident keep watch over whilst the keep an eye on protein (activator) is important for this expression. It has develop into obvious that, as before everything postulated via JACOB and MONOD, regulate of gene expression operates, a minimum of to a wide quantity, on the transcriptional level.

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Extra info for Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology / Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitatsforschung

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BioI. 22, 79-95 (1966). - Lysogeny. Symp. Soc. Gen. MicrobioI. 18,315-342 (1968). - Control of development in temperate bacteriophages. III. Which prophage genes are and which are not trans-activable in the presence of immunity? J. molec. BioI. 49,393-404 (1970). : Sur Ie contr6le genetique de l'excision et de la recombinaison chez les bacteriophages temperes. C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 266, 2025-2028 (1968). : Insertion of phage Mu. 1 within prophage A: a new approach for studying the control of the late functions in bacteriophage A.

G> Fig. 3. a A positive (Q) and a negative (eI) control units connected in series on the operon S- J. b Two positive (Q and N) control units connected in series on the operon S- J . n, q stand for N protein, Q protein The major feature of such combinations is that one of the controle acts directly, the other indirectly, on the operon; a negative state of the latter (presence of eI, absence of N) can be bypassed if the Q product is provided by a suitable superinfecting phage. An interesting situation would be that of two negative control units connected in series.

226,31-32 (1970). , SLY, W. : Constitutive A DNA replication by AS7 , a regulatory mutant related to virulence. Virology 34, 778-789 (1968). PEREIRA DA SILVA, L. : Induction of cII and 0 functions in early defective lambda prophages. Virology 33,618-624 (1967). - - Etude genetique d'une mutation modifiant la sensibilite a l'immunite chez Ie bacteriophage lambda. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 115, 145-158 (1968). : Location of the phage lambda gene responsible for turning off lambda exonuclease synthesis.

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