By Samuel B. Applebaum

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Additional resources for Demineralization by Ion Exchange. In Water Treatment and Chemical Processing of Other Liquids

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Soda ash is usually more than twice as costly as lime. Therefore, all possible reduction in bicarbonate hardness by means of lime should first be planned, and then, if the total hardness of the predicted lime-softened effluent is not as low as desired, soda ash can be added, to reduce a part of the noncarĀ­ bonate hardness. Equations 4 and 5 show that one part of soda ash reacts with one part of noncarbonate hardness, so the required dose of soda ash is equal to the desired reduction of noncarbonate hardness, when both are expressed in parts per million as C a C O a .

Of that above Free C 0 2 = 0 Anions (ppm as C a C 0 3 ) : S04 = unchanged CI = unchanged HC03 = 0 C03 = use Fig. 1 OH = 0 to 10 TA = sum of that above TA must equal T C 1. EQUIPMENT DESIGNS Two designs of settling tanks have been developed: a downflow tank with sludge recirculation (Fig. 4) and an upflow tank with solids contact "sludge blanket" (Fig. 5). The downflow type is often favored when the flow rate is to vary widely, because the blanket of sludge in the upflow type expands with increasing flow and can be carried over into the outlet, unless the level of the top of the suspended sludge is carefully controlled.

They are removed by the same coagulation methods used for eliminating suspended matter (Chapter 4 , Section II). Iron in acid mine-water drainage is present as the sulfate. Its removal requires the addition of lime, which neutralizes the acidity and raises the p H value before precipitation of the ferric hydroxide can take place. 1. AERATION EQUIPMENT For the introduction of oxygen into water three types of aerator are used: the pressure aerator, the open aerator, and the forced-draft aerator. a.

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