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Large bulk carriers now carry 45 percent of all coal shipments, and 10 percent of grain shipments. ) are carried in smaller vessels. S. ports at 46 ft of draft or more in 1980 were corn, edible oils, sugar, iron ore, sulfur, chemicals, rubber, coal, oil and oil products, and vehicles. Containerships, because of their much higher productivity as compared to other general cargo ships, are displacing older general cargo vessels, and their productivity appears to increase with size. Cargo-carrying RoRos of large size are also growing as a percentage of the world fleet, as they are flexible vessels (many carry containers) able to load and unload in a great variety of ports, and able to carry cargoes too large or awkward for packing into containers.

28 cargo. S. ports by large containerships. S. ports. Great care has been exercised in some ports to achieve transit of these vessels, such as entering/leaving at high water, one-way traffic, and operation at slow speeds. If in the future two-way traffic, higher speeds, or other operational changes are desirable, greater channel dimensions may be required. Efficiency or higher traffic density may depend on depth. If vessels pass or overtake one another, or if higher speeds in port are desirable, or if shipowners want to be able to enter and leave port at periods of low water, these operations require more depth (and possibly greater widths) than one-way traffic, slower speeds, and transits at high water (see Chapter 7).

Page breaks are true to the original; line lengths, word breaks, heading styles, and other typesetting-specific formatting, however, cannot be retained, and some typographic errors may have been accidentally inserted. Please use the print version of this publication as the authoritative version for attribution. DOES THE UNITED STATES NEED TO ACCOMMODATE LARGE VESSELS? 36 are reflected in prices. (2) Only if the United States is able to take advantage of low-cost transportation will it be able to maximize its competitiveness in the international economy.

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