By Andrew Muldoon

The 1935 executive of India Act was once arguably the main major turning element within the historical past of the British management in India. The reason of the Act, an offer for an Indian federation, was once the continuation of British regulate of India, and the deflection of the problem to the Raj posed via Gandhi, Nehru and the nationalist move. This publication seeks to appreciate why British directors and politicians believed that the sort of process might paintings and what precisely underpinned their purposes. it truly is argued that British efforts to defuse and disrupt the actions of Indian nationalists within the inter conflict years have been predicated on definite cultural ideals approximately Indian political habit and means. despite the fact that, this was once no longer easily a case of 'Orientalist' policy-making. confronted with a sophisticated political state of affairs, a mind-blowing volume of data and a relentless have to produce research, the officials of the Raj imposed their very own cultural expectancies upon occasions and proof to render them understandable. Indians themselves performed a frequently disregarded function within the formula of this political intelligence, particularly the fairly few Indians who maintained shut ties to the colonial govt comparable to T.B. Sapru and M.R. Jayakar. those males weren't simply mediators, as they've got often been portrayed, yet have been in truth very important tacticians whose actions additional verified the weaknesses of the colonial details financial system. the writer employs lately published archival fabric, together with the Indian Political Intelligence files, to situate the 1935 Act in its a number of and overlapping contexts: inner British tradition and politics; the imperial 'information order' in India; and the politics of Indian nationalism. This wealthy and nuanced learn is vital interpreting for students engaged on British, Indian and imperial historical past

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65 Barbara Wingfield-Stratford, India and the English (London, 1922), p. 97. 66 Frank Lugard Brayne, The Remaking of Village India (Oxford, 1929); Malcolm Darling, Wisdom and Waste in the Punjab Village (Oxford, 1934). For more on Brayne, see Zivin, “Imagined reign of the Iron Lecturer,” and for more on Darling, see Clive Dewey, Anglo-Indian Attitudes: The Mind of the Indian Civil Service (London, 1993). 67 Malcolm Darling, The Punjab Peasant in Prosperity and Debt (London, 1925), p. 38. K. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home Rule (Ahmedabad, 1996), pp.

George Lloyd, Governor of Bombay, described Reading’s plan as “contemptible” in a letter to Austen Chamberlain. See Austen Chamberlain Papers (Birmingham University Library) AC 18/1/27, 24 March 1922.  Quoted in Kaul, “A New Angle of Vision,” p.

S. O’Malley, The Indian Civil Service, 1601–1930 (London, 1931), pp. 147–149. , Plain Tales from the Raj: 126 127 Images of British India in the Twentieth Century (London, 1975), Chapter 4. 128 A British Tale of Indian and Foreign Service: The Memoirs of Sir Ian Scott, Dennis Judd, ed. (London, 1999), p. 37. ” (Gilmour, Ruling Caste, p. 61). 129 Ann Ewing, “The Indian Civil Service 1919–1924: Service Discontent and the Response in London and in Delhi,” Modern Asian Studies 18/1 (1984), pp. 33–53.

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