By Fluegge S. (ed.)

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31) The pressure outlet boundary condition is often the default condition used to define the static pressure at flow outlets. The use of a pressure outlet boundary condition instead of an outflow condition often results in a better rate of convergence when backflow occurs during iteration. Pressure outflow is also useful when there are several outflows. Specified outflow boundary conditions are used to model flow exits where the details of the inlet flow velocity and pressure are not known prior to solution of the flow problem.

The work done by the gravity force (the sixth term on the right-hand side) is the change in potential energy due to gravity. Reversible conversion to heat (the third term on the right-hand side) stems from the thermodynamic cooling when a gas expands or heating when it is compressed. g. a rubber band. The irreversible conversion of kinetic energy into heat (the fifth term on the right-hand side) is, for Newtonian fluids, 1 1 ∂Ui = ν ε = − τi j ρ ∂x j 2 ∂Ui ∂U j + ∂x j ∂ xi − 2 ∂Ui 3 ∂ xi 2 . 27) Owing to the fact that this is a squared term, the viscous dissipation term is always positive for Newtonian fluids.

3). s. ∂φ n d A. 7) Using the same notation as in the convective case, Eq. 7) can be evaluated to give a similar expression: − AŴ ∂φ ∂x − w AŴ ∂φ ∂x + AŴ e ∂φ ∂y − AŴ s ∂φ ∂y + AŴ n ∂φ ∂z AŴ t ∂φ ∂z . 3 The source term The last term in the general transport equation is the source term, Sφ dV . v. The source term takes into account any generation or dissipation of φ. The body force due to gravity in the Navier–Stokes equation for the y momentum is an example of a source term as discussed previously.

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