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Extra so than any of the opposite significant teams of components within the periodic desk, the transition metals have formed human historical past and feature been the workhorses of undefined. the invention of metal copper ended the Stone Age and ushered within the Bronze Age. Alloys of iron (especially metal) later took over, and the Iron Age changed the Bronze Age.
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But it was spectacularly unsuccessful for every other atom containing more than one electron. (2) We no longer believe in well-defined electron orbits as was assumed by Bohr. In fact, in view of modern advances, like dual nature of matter, uncertainty principle, any mechanical model of the atom stands rejected. (3) Bohr’s model of electronic structure could not account for the ability of atoms to form molecules through chemical bonds. Today we only accept Bohr’s views regarding quantization as nobody has explained atomic spectra without numerical quantization and no longer attempted description of atoms on classical mechanics.
SPECTRAL SERIES OF HYDROGEN Series n1 n2 Region Wavelength λ (Å) Lyman Balmer Paschen Brackett Pfund 1 2 3 4 5 2, 3, 4, 5, etc. 3, 4, 5, 6, etc. 4, 5, 6, 7, etc. 29 Explanation of spectral lines of hydrogen in visible region. (2) λ where λ is wavelength of photon and c is velocity of light. (3) where R is Rydberg constant. The value of R can be calculated as the value of e, m, h and c are known. It comes out to be 109,679 cm– 1 and agrees closely with the value of Rydberg constant in the original empirical Balmer’s equation (109,677 cm– 1).
ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF INERT GASES Inert Gas Atomic Number 1st (K) 2nd (L) Helium (He) Neon (Ne) Argon (Ar) Krypton (Kr) Xenon (Xe) Radon (Rn) 2 10 18 36 54 86 2 2 2 2 2 2 – 8 8 8 8 8 Electron Orbits 3rd (M) 4th (N) – – 8 18 18 18 – – – 8 18 32 5th (O) – – – – 8 18 6th (P) – – – – – 8 A complete statement of the electron configuration of elements elucidating the various postulates of Bohr-Bury scheme is given in the table on page 31 for ready reference. ZEEMAN EFFECT In 1896 Zeeman discovered that spectral lines are split up into components when the source emitting lines is placed in a strong magnetic field.
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