By Noel Nevers

Aimed toward the traditional junior point introductory direction on fluid mechanics taken through all chemical engineers, the publication takes a broad-scale method of chemical engineering functions together with examples in security, fabrics and bioengineering. a brand new bankruptcy has been further on blending, in addition to movement in open channels and unsteady circulate.

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Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers

Aimed toward the traditional junior point introductory direction on fluid mechanics taken through all chemical engineers, the publication takes a broad-scale method of chemical engineering functions together with examples in security, fabrics and bioengineering. a brand new bankruptcy has been additional on blending, in addition to circulate in open channels and unsteady circulate.

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Fibre spinning is an example of uniaxial elongation (but the stretch rate varies from point to point along the length of the fibre). Tubular film blowing which involves extruding of polymer through a slit die and pulling the emerging sheet forward and sideways is an example of biaxial extension; here, the stretch rates in the two directions can normally be specified and controlled. 25 Uniaxial extensional flow which may be made either by extrusion or by injection moulding, followed by heating and subjection to high pressure air for blowing to the desired size.

The spoon), the inertial circulation will die out as a result of the action of viscous forces. 20 Qualitative differences between a viscous fluid and an elastic solid visco-elastic (as some of the proprietary soups are), the liquid will be seen to slow to a stop and then to unwind a little. This type of behaviour is closely linked to the tendency for a gel structure to form within the fluid; such an element of rigidity makes simple shear less likely to occur – the shearing forces tending to act as couples to produce rotation of the fluid elements as well as pure slip.

27) or Pyy and τyy can be replaced by Pzz and τzz, respectively. The earliest determinations of elongational viscosity were made for the simplest case of uniaxial extension, the stretching of a fibre or filament of liquid. , 1989). 28) The value of 3 for Trouton ratio for an incompressible Newtonian fluid applies to all values of shear and elongation rates. 29) is somewhat ambiguous, since it depends on both ε and γ , and some convention must therefore be adopted to relate the strain rates in extension and shear.

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