By D. Kunii, Octave Levenspiel and Howard Brenner (Auth.)

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These situations call for multistage operations where the last stage or last few stages can be used for such heat treatment. Somewhat related to this, the low-temperature roasting of agricultural products, such as coffee beans, has been commercialized in spouted beds; see Sivetz [7]. Two-solid drier-roasters are finding increased use today, particularly in the food industry. Here, small dense particles are fluidized by the hot gas, as shown in Fig. 5. Then large, less dense solids, such as peanuts, are fed in at one end of the unit, float on the surface of the fluidized bed, and leave at the other end.

For efficient utilization of the by-product coke particles, Exxon combined its fluid coking unit with a giant gasification reactor to develop a process called Flexi-Coking. Figure 14(b) shows the gasifier, which is connected to the heater of the fluid coker to make a giant double-loop circulation system [27, 28]. The first unit was built in Kawasaki, Japan, in 1976, and today this type of unit processes about 3400 tons of vacuum residue per day. 9 980 40 C H A P T E R 2 — Industrial Applications of Fluidized Beds Although the inorganic content (V, Ni) of the feed is small, it concentrates in the coke particles, lowering its sintering temperature.

Not until the early 1960s were reactor operations for their circulating fluidized beds (CFB) firmly established, even though operations started in 1955. In 1974 Sasol decided to build a second oil-from-coal plant, and selected the Badger Company to assist in the development of their second generation of Synthol C F B reactors. Problems in the first-generation reactors were overcome by the improved design in Fig. 9. In the dilute side of the circuit (voidage 85%), reactant gases, H2 and CO, carry suspended catalyst upward at 3 - 1 2 m / s , and the fluidized bed and standpipe on the other side of the circuit provide the driving force for the smooth circulation of the powdery catalyst.

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