By Joan Offerman-Zuckerberg (auth.), Joan Offerman-Zuckerberg Ph.D. (eds.)

The want for a kid runs deep, as does the need for parenthood. it's a want that's necessary to the continuance of the human species. It derives its intent energy from many interrelated assets: psychobiological, sociological, ancient. but it's a energy that's altering arms. a brief decade in the past, Louise Brown was once born. ahead of this occasion, humans had began organic existence deep within a feminine physique. Louise Brown's delivery signaled the start of a brand new period: The door to a brand new biotechnological global used to be opened, a global of man-made insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogacy, embryo transplants, amniocentesis, gender preselection-procedures imagined yet by no means ahead of learned, major might be to the injection of recent genetic fabric into frozen embryos. certainly, what have been, in view that Eve, an completely girl strength and prerogative has now been invaded by means of 20th-century biotechnology. The womb has been changed, and sperm and egg can now be joined with out love and romance. swap brings with it new questions: a posh inquiry has been generated by way of concerns which are mental, moral, ethical, organic, sociological, and felony. at the same time, and never by the way or by accident, gender psychology is in transi­ tion. As we input an androgynous area, cultural heroes shift, new emerge. Gender roles are redefined, and renegotiated, now not with out fight and apprehen­ sion. we're imminent a brand new frontier-hopeful, self-conscious, and concerned. the probabilities are never-ending, as are the problems.

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These relationships involve men as lovers, husbands, fathers to children, and caregiving adults to aging parents. This developmental process, which leaves us in a rather bifurcated version of what it means to be human in a Platonic sense, is encountering the new cultural archetypes that are moving us to a version of masculinity that includes the notion of being both tough and tender, independent and dependent, self-interested and altruistic. The result is that in addition to struggling with classical masculine kinds of conflicts involving aggression and competition, men are now struggling with problems related to the psychic demands of being more than tough, of asking themselves how to be both tough and tender.

In fact, this is all we can hope for, since our programming at a biopsychological level imposes limits within which we have to work, as individuals and as members of a group. This, of course, can be offset by a host of factors of internal motivation, wishes, and encouragements, and the lifting of internal psychic barriers, as well as the slow modification of sociocultural archetypes. What is increasingly clear is that the external forces of change are prominent. How we react inside is more questionable, problematic, and uncertain.

Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Russell, G. (1982). Shared caregiving families: An Australian study. In M. E. ), Nontraditional families: Parenting and child development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Sheehy, G. (1979). Introducing the postponing generation. Esquire, 92(4), 25-33. Shields, S. A. (1987). Women, men, and the dilemma of emotion. In P. Shaver & C. ), Sex and gender (pp. 229-251). CA: Sage. , & Feld, S. (1970). Marriage and work in America. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Chapter 3 Preparation for Fatherhood Dreams of Transition MARY BETH M.

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