By L. M. De Rijk

This quantity includes the 1st serious version of Girald Odonis (d. 1349), De intentionibus , within which the writer offers with the multifarious difficulties round conceptualization with which philosophers and theologians from round 1300 have been confronted while trying to bridge the distance among inspiration and fact. Girald appears to be like to were an unyielding defender of the 'realistic' place, protecting that our variously articulated thoughts ( intentiones ) are consultant of as many differences in fact. the focus of his critical feedback upon contemporaneous perspectives of the problem is Hervé de Nédellec, who used to be the 1st to put in writing a monograph De intentionibus , which betrays his adherence to a reasonable realism. The editor's broad learn of the intentionality debate of these years focusses at the improvement of the cognition concept within the interval among Thomas Aquinas and Peter Auriol (d. 1322).

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Hence the mind, too, can have no characteristic except its receptivity. That part of the soul, then, which is called mind (nous)—by ‘mind’ I mean that part by which the souls thinks and judges—has no actual being until it thinks. (…). It has been well said that the soul is ‘the place of forms’, except for the fact that this description does not hold for the soul as a whole, but only the intellectual soul, and that it does not contain the forms actually but only potentially. The main question arising from this passage and the like was that concerning the nature and function of the intelligible species, including the way in which they can be obtained.

1293) claims that, apart from their identity with the Divine Nature, the Ideas are something in their own right, namely objective contents of God’s knowledge, which should be well marked off from their esse subiective in God as knowing subject. Now the contingent acts of creation do not affect God’s immutable Nature, in which the objective contents, both before and after the creation of contingent things, are as such mere possibilia pointing ahead, so to speak, to things to be created. 45 In the wake of Arab philosophy, Avicenna in particular, the ideas or rationes rerum in their objective status were taken as absolute natures, and contra-distinguished to their two modes of being occurring in the things created, to wit their being as universal natures (the logical universals) and as particular essences inhering in the singulars.

Unica, nr. 12 (I, 553b): “(…) idea lapidis non est lapis intellectus”. 48 Reportatio parisiensis I, dist. 36, q. 3, nr. 20. 49 Qu. , q. 1 (Vat. Lat. 1012, ff. 60v–62v); Quodlibet, q. 2 (Vat. Lat. 1012, ff. 48ra–49ra); de Rijk (1975), 212, n. ; for the latter text see Yokoyama (1967). This view is the one argued for by Scotus (Opus oxoniense I, dist. 36, q. unica). 50 Opus oxon. I dist. 36, q. un. 3 below. 51 For a good understanding and assessment of the role of optics in matters of semantics and epistemology in the period 1250–1345 the study by Katherine Tachau (1988) is still a must.

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