By J. Swarbrick(ed)

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From Refs. ) © 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Theory of Granulation 9 Figure 3 A typical agglomeration circuit utilized in the processing of pharmaceuticals involving both granulation and compression techniques. (From Refs. ) subsequent tableting or for vial or capsule filling operations. The wet granulation process must generally achieve the desired granule properties within some prescribed range. These attributes clearly depend on the application at hand. However, common to most processes is a specific granule size distribution and granule voidage.

However, certain mechanisms may dominate in a particular manufacturing process. For example, fluidized bed granulators are strongly influenced by the wetting process, whereas mechanical redispersion of binding fluid by impellers and particularly high-intensity choppers diminishes the wetting contributions to granule size in high-shear mixing. On the other hand, granule consolidation is far more pronounced in high-shear mixing than in fluidized-bed granulation. These simultaneous rate processes taken as a whole—and sometimes competing against one another—determine the final granule size distribution and granule structure and voidage resulting from a process, and therefore the final end-use or product quality attributes of the granulated product.

Poor wetting in practice can translate into reduced production rates to compensate for increased time for drops to work into the powder bed surface. Weaker granules are also often observed, since poor wet phase interfacial behavior translates in part to poor solid bond strength and high granule voidage. 5 sec, illustrating the importance of comparing dynamic behavior of formulations, after which time surfactant adsorption/desorption reduces the contact angle. As an example of Washburn approaches as illustrated in Figure 19, the effect of fluid penetration rate and the extent of penetration on granule size distribution for drum granulation was shown by Gluba et al.

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