By Leslie Collier, John Oxford

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Extra resources for Human Virology. A text for students of medicine, dentistry, and microbiology 3th Edition

Sample text

Herpes and poxviruses have large DNA genomes with over 150 genes. Gene splicing is not used with either of these viruses and, in particular, not with poxviruses, which replicate in the cytoplasm. There is precisely regulated transcription with early and late switches, which ensure that gene products involved in DNA replication are synthesized early in the cycle and viral structural proteins much later. Both these viruses, and particularly poxviruses, have a range of unique enzymes that are carried by the viruses themselves.

3 Insidious infections with fatal outcomes 38 6 Shedding of virus from the host 38 7 How infectious is a virus? 1 shows a child with measles, an elderly patient with severe herpes zoster (‘shingles’), and another child with a malignant tumour of the jaw known as Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL). Each of these people is under attack by a virus; however, the manifestations differ greatly, not only in appearance but also in the way in which the viruses concerned caused these unpleasant effects. This chapter is concerned with the complex interactions between viruses and hosts that result in disease, in other words, with the pathogenesis of viral infection.

Two examples illustrate this assertion. For example, the AIDS virus (HIV-1) was at first thought to belong to the tumour virus group of the family Retroviridae (Chapter 6). g. a long latency period and absence of oncogenicity) could be filled in by reference to other viruses of the same group. 2 Important structural characteristics of the families of viruses of medical importance Family name Representative viruses Approximate diameter of virion (nm) Symmetry of nucleocapsid* DNA viruses Parvoviridae Human parvovirus 20 I Papovaviridae Wart viruses 50 I Adenoviridae Adenoviruses 80 I Herpes simplex virus 180 I Poxviridae Vaccinia virus 250 C Hepadnaviridae Hepatitis B virus 40 I Astroviridae Astroviruses 30 I Picornaviridae Polioviruses 25 I Flaviviridae Yellow fever virus 30 I Togaviridae Rubella virus 80 I Coronaviridae Infectious bronchitis virus 100 H Bunyaviridae California encephalitis virus 100 H Orthomyxoviridae Influenza viruses 100 H Paramyxoviridae Measles virus 150 H Rhabdoviridae Rabies virus 150 H Arenaviridae Lassa fever virus 100 H Retroviridae HIV-1 100 I Reoviridae Rotaviruses 70 I Flaviviridae Marburg virus Caliciviridae Calicivirus RNA viruses * H, helical; I, icosahedral; C, complex.

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