By M. Shahin

This publication presents a different assurance of the hydrology and water assets of Africa, together with the neighbouring islands. The contents are lined in fourteen chapters. the amount includes a CD-ROM with uncooked meteorological, hydrometric and water caliber info. Emphasis is laid at the parts of the hydrological cycle; precipitation, evaporation and runoff of either land and insular Africa. The hydrologic features of 16 rivers and wadi basins of other sizes are provided and mentioned. furthermore, hydrology of lakes, and different wetlands and garage reservoirs are awarded. in addition, the valuable groundwater aquifers are reviewed. final, yet no longer least, the function of water assets within the total improvement of Africa is highlighted. viewers: This quantity should still attract researchers and execs operating within the fields of civil and agricultural engineering, actual geography, African reports, and people attracted to floor and groundwater assets in Africa. additional info on extras.springer.com uncooked meteorological, hydrometric and water caliber info can be found on http://extras.springer.com

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June, July and August are the warmest months in the highlatitude regions in the northern hemisphere. Examples can be found in Sfax (8), Funchal (15), Agadir (24), Aswan (32), Atar (35) and Bilma (37) all located above 18° N. The warmest month moves to May at Tillabery (59), Dori (61) and Arbecher (63) where the latitude is around 14°N. The summer month moves further to April at Kuotiala (78) and Boromo (82), located at about 12° N latitude. In the period JanuaryMarch the warmest regions are the equatorial parts of the Gulf of Guinea, the Chad Basin, the southern Sudan and the lowlands of Somalia.

Before we dwell on the history of exploring Africa’s surface water resources (rivers and lakes), it might be worthwhile to highlight some ofthe dynamic processes 12 CHAPTER 1 underlying the formation of river drainage basins. Stream erosion of the landmass during the heavy pluvial episodes of the early Miocene created the ancient drainage patterns, which still form the basis of the hydrology of a large part of the continent. This had been effected by rivers flowing from a higher central region to lower areas eastward and westward.

CLIMATE 35 36 CHAPTER 2 In addition to the general increasing trend in the air temperature at Lake Tanganyika, oscillations around the general mean were noted. There is a significant correlation between the air temperature at the climate stations and the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Pacific Ocean. The strongest correlation corresponds to a lag of four months between the SST peak and the next temperature peak in the lake environment. 41 for Bujumbura and Mbala, respectively. Plisnier (1998) reported that recent El- Niños were observed at Lake Tanganyika in 1954, 1958, 1966, 1969, 1973, 1983, 1988 and 1991-1994.

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