By Senior Lecturer in Economic and Social Linguistics George Gheverghese Joseph

Indian arithmetic supplies a special perception into the background of arithmetic inside a ancient worldwide context. It builds on learn into the relationship among arithmetic and the world-wide development of economics and expertise. Joseph attracts out parallel advancements in different cultures and thoroughly examines the transmission of mathematical rules throughout geographical and cultural borders. available to those that be interested within the worldwide heritage of mathematical rules, for the historians, philosophers and sociologists of arithmetic, it's a ebook to not be overlooked.

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E. Mathematics) comes of age The Vedic religion with its sacrificial rites began to wane and other religions began to replace it. One of these was Jainism, a dissenting religion and philosophy which was founded in India around the sixth century BCE. Although the period after the decline of the Vedic religion up to the time of Aryabhata I around 500 CE used to be considered as a ‘Dark Age’ in Indian mathematics, recently it has been recognised as a time when many mathematical ideas were maturing.

It proves most certainly that the Braham Siddhanta cited, or at least a part of it, is a complete forgery, probably framed, among many other books, during the last century by a junta of Brahmins, for the purpose of carrying on a regular systematic imposition”. (p. 151) For the record, Aryabhata was born in 476 CE and the dates when Varhamihira, Brahmagupta and Emperor Akbar lived were 505, 598 and 1550 respectively. So it is safe to suggest that Bentley’s hypothesis was a product of either ignorance or Eurocentric fabrication.

Fascination with large numbers has remained an abiding characteristic of Indian civilisation. As early as 800 BCE, there appeared names for powers of 10 up to 62. The importance of number-names in the evolution of the decimal place-value notation in India cannot be overstated. 4 Such a system presupposed a scientifically based vocabulary of names in which the principles of addition, subtraction and multiplication could also be incorporated. The system required: (i) the naming of the first nine digits (eka, dvi, tri, catur, pancha, sat, sapta, asta, nava); (ii) obtaining a second group of nine numbers by multiplying each of the nine digits by ten (dasa, vimsat, trimsat, catvarimsat, panchasat, sasti, saptati, astiti, navati); and (iii) constructing a third group of numbers of increasing integral powers of 10, starting with hundred (102 ) and going up to trillion (1012 ) [sata, sahasara, ayut, niyuta, prayuta, arbuda, nyarbuda, samudra, madhya, anta, parardha].

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