By Rup Lal (auth.), Dr. Rup Lal (eds.)

Of all of the nutrition produced on this planet one 3rd is misplaced to insect pests, weeds and illnesses, and the entire international inhabitants is envisioned as becoming from 4000 million in 1975 to approximately 6000 million by way of the 12 months 2000. to fulfill those wishes, the world's farmers needs to meet the additional requirement each year. the best way within which farmers can bring up the quantity of nutrition they produce is to avoid the loss because of pests. The organic regulate measures which have been as soon as considered the most secure equipment of pest keep an eye on have, as we now recognize, no longer proved winning on a advertisement scale. In this sort of dismal scenario the single answer is to exploit insecticides to avoid wasting the losses from pests and to extend the crop yield. except agriculture, insecticides have additionally contributed a lot to human com­ castle via controlling the vectors of typhoid, malaria, dozing disease, filariasis, dengue hemorrhage fever, plague and so on. however, the indiscriminate use of pesticides and their damaging results on nontarget organisms has attracted a lot recognition from humans in all walks of existence, for instance, scientists, directors, the click and the general public. the damaging results of pesticides on better organisms similar to birds, fish and mammals are effortless to watch and feature acquired a lot realization. notwithstanding, the interactions of pesticides with microorganisms resembling micro organism, fungi, algae and protozoa have long past disregarded until eventually recently.

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Residue Rev 52:69-87 Gerloff GC (1963) Comparative mineral nutrition of plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 14: 107-123 Gilbert OJW, Bocock KL (1960) Changes in the leaflitter when placed on the surface of soils with contrasting humus types. II. Changes in the nitrogen content of oak and ash leaflitter. J Soil Sci II: 10-19 Golterman HL (1969) Methods for chemical analysis of fresh waters. IBP Handbook no 8. Blackwell Sci Publ, Oxford Golterman HL (1975) Physiological limnology. Elsevier Sci Publ, New York Goulder R (1974) The seasonal and spatial distribution of some benthic ciliated protozoa in Esthwaite water.

Freshwater Bioi 4: 127-147 Gray TRG, Williams ST (1971) Microbial productivity in soil. In: Hughes De, Rose AH (eds) Microbes and biological productivity. 21st Symp Soc Gen Microbiol. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, pp 255-286 Green MB, Hartley GS, West TF (1977) Chemicals for crop protection and pest control. Pergamon Press, New York Greenwood DJ (1961) The effect of oxygen concentration on the decomposition of organic materials in soil. Plant Soil 24: 360-376 Greenwood DJ, Berry G (1962) Aerobic respiration in soil crumbas.

Several species such as Curvularia, Pyricularia, Nigrospora are restricted to tropical regions in their distribution, whereas Alternaria spp. is most abundant in warm and dry regions. 4 Survival of Aerial Microflora The successful survival of aerial microbes depends upon several stress factors acting upon them. A major factor of their survival in the air is the problem of remaining airborne. Only microbes having a diameter of less than 1 mm can remain permanently suspended in air (Madelin and Linton 1971).

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