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These authors also found that the presence of water would affect the high temperature fatigue lifetime due to the increased brittle subsurface zone [481]. The effects of alloying elements on the oxidation behaviour of TiAl have been studied extensively. The objectives of alloying are to decrease the growth rate of the intermixed TiO2/Al2O3 scale, to favour the formation of Al2O3, and to stabilize the Al2O3 scale. , the selection of alloying elements can be guided by the following proposed mechanisms [482-483]: (1) Valence-control rule: If the formation of TiO2 were suppressed or minimized, then the situation will become more favourable for the formation of an Al2O3-rich or an exclusive Al2O3 scale.

In this way the formation of a wide α2-containing subsurface depletion layer, accompanied by internal oxidation, destruction of the outer alumina barrier layer and high oxide growth rates is prevented [463]. It is well known that many metals or alloys oxidize faster in water vapor containing atmospheres than in dry oxygen. For Fr-Cr, Fe-Si and/or Fe-Al alloys, the protective scale (Cr2O3, SiO2 or Al2O3), which develops in dry oxygen, fails to develop or cannot maintain after certain period of exposure in water vapour containing atmospheres [464-477].

Al. %. %Al, is stable up to ~1090oC. 7 g/cm3. 29 [328-330]. The mechanical properties (strength, ductility and creep) of Ti3Al alloys can be improved by alloying with Nb and/or processing control [331-341]. %)Nb with additional alloying elements for further strengthening. It was believed that substitution of Ti by Nb could promote more slip systems in operation, then affecting the 22 Zhengwei Li and Wei Gao ductility. , β-Ti in the disordered state with an α2 structure or in the ordered state with a B2 structure and/or orthorhombic O-phase, which limit the slip length and have a significant and beneficial effect on the ductility.

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