By Bruce A. Moyer
Reflecting the sustained and various experimental momentum within the box of ion trade, quantity sixteen summarizes innovative advances on par with the continually high-level examine similar by means of this sequence. this article discusses the kinetics, theoretical types, experimental results/supporting info, and purposes for isothermal supersaturation, steel separation through pH-induced parametric pumping, and for ultrapure water (UPW). themes additionally comprise the engineering of activated carbons and carbonaceous fabrics for removing of steel ions; hydrophobic ionizable natural compounds (HIOCs); the sorption/desorption mechanisms of natural micropollutants in water; and ion trade strategy variables on perchlorate treatment.
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Extra resources for Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction: A Series of Advances, Volume 19
The S 2p spectra show no oxidized sulfur at 400 C (around 1 at% is the limit of detection of the instrument) and higher, but oxygen is still present in MN500HS-HTT400 and MN500HS-C1. This residual surface oxygen may be attributed to surface oxidation of the carbon upon exposure to the atmosphere when the samples are removed from the furnace. Within the furnace, the samples are in an inert nitrogen atmosphere. A series of activated carbon samples were prepared from MN500HS using CO2 as the activation agent at various temperatures to obtain different levels of burn-off.
Co2þ and Zn2þ were less preferred than Ni2þ, and Mn2þ was the least favored ion. Figure 18 clearly indicates that the complex stability=selectivity trend remains independent of the method and extent of adsorbent oxidation. It is also independent of the type of carbon precursor, the porous structure, and the type of adsorbent for all adsorptive materials investigated. , carboxylic or lactonic, or sum total of noncarbonyl groups did not show a linear trend. Based on the metal sorption data discussed above, the relative sorption afﬁnity of metal ions can be described as follows (the arrangement of metals in the sequence is the same as in the periodic table): Mn2þ < Co2þ < Ni2þ < Zn2þ < Cu2þ.
Carbon dioxide from decomposition of carboxylic and lactone groups, in the range of approximately 200 C to 700–800 C 2. Carbon monoxide from decomposition of quinone, phenol, and ether groups, in the range of approximately 500 C to about 1000 C 3. Water from decomposition of phenolic groups, in the range from 200–300 C to 400–500 C 4. Molecular hydrogen from recombination of hydrogen atoms liberated as a result of splitting of C–H and O–H bonds, in the range above 500–700 C A combination of evolved gas analysis using mass spectrometry or gas chromatography and conventional thermogravimetric analysis provides further information on the functional groups.
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