By Pier Giorgio Righetti (Eds.)

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All oligoamines should be distilled under nitrogen and reduced pressure just before use. Originally, we had also suggested distillation of acrylic acid (it contains 200 ppm p-methoxyphenol) under nitrogen, but today we prefer to do it in an air stream: in fact, as the product distills under N2, it might, due to the high temperature, start polymerizing with itself, producing oligo- and poly-acrylic acid, while the oxygen in the air should inhibit self-polymerization. The distillation process for TETA, TEPA and acrylic acid is quite simple, since these substances have low boiling points under reduced pressure.

1 THEORY AND FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF IEF 15 though Rilbe’s theories have been challenged (especially on account of steady-state decay in gel IEF, as well as lack of uniform conductivity, buffering capacity and pH gradients in present-day IEF) no alternative theory has been presented to date, and Rilbe’s basic concepts remain valid. Artificial p H gradients The pH gradients obtained by diffusion of non-amphoteric buffers of different pH under an electric field (Kolin, 1954, 1955, 1958) were termed artificial pH gradients by Svensson (1961), since the gradient is affected by changes in electric migration and diffusion of the buffer ions.

Ch. 1 THEORY AND FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS O F IEF 31 As stated by Davies (1970), LKB Ampholine had been reinforced at the acid end with glutamic and aspartic acids and at the alkaline extreme with lysine and arginine, since in the synthetic process the yield of ampholytes at both ends was lower than in the middle ranges. The presence of amino acids had in fact been reported by Earland and Ramsden (1969) and suggested also by Righetti et al. (1975b) on the basis of optical rotatory data. However, according to Haglund (1975) only Ampholine ranges produced from 1967 up to and including 1972 contained amino acids.

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