By R. Stevenson

BERMUDO on my own of the numerous Spanish theorists and composers of the sixteenth century turns out to have written whatever in particular for brand spanking new global use. all of the extra becoming is it, then, to have accomplished this monograph in part of the Spanish Indies that used to be stirring each Andalusian's mind's eye through the days while he was once first sending his books around the Atlantic. In each approach his was once a amazing character. He was once the 1st to compose and submit any organ track in Spain. as though the book of such song in staff-notation weren't adequate he additionally released the 1st Spanish keyboard piece in tablature. He used to be the 1st in Spain to print any song in ranking. he's pointed out by way of Pincherle because the first to put up a harp technique anyplace. He pioneered with the 1st treatise particularly designed for lady use. He additionally "enjoys" the excellence of getting develop into in Tapia's Verge! de Musica (1570) the main ruthlessly plagiarized author in Spanish musical background. If bulk determines preeminence he stands above even Tomas de Santa Maria - who released just one quantity, and that containing significantly much less textual content. If variety of pursuits determines rank nobody else writing in Spanish in the course of his century even methods him. Nor does a person else in Spanish have such a lot of experts at his fingertips.

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Ornithoparchus before Bermudo had already cited the same two passages from John XXII (Micrologus, bk. I, chs. 12 [De vero psallendi modo] and I [Q,ui dicantur Cantores]). Augustine ranks first in Bermudo's favor among those authorities whom he classes as doctores. , Declaracion, 1549, fols. ). Now and then he quotes a passage from Augustine's De musica not for its own sake, but because it gives him a platform from which to teach some newer doctrine. At fo1. 67v. of the 1549 Declaracion he, for instance, mounts Augustine's first chapter as a convenient dais from which to deliver a sermon that Ramos de Pareja had preached, but not the bishop of Hippo.

Only in the 1550 examples does he show where the versicles commence. In ch. 18 = 17 he suppresses the difficult example involving ligatures (17) and adds a paragraph explaining the new "Guidonian" index finger to be used when teaching polyphony. Just as in Lux bella (1492) Marcos Duran had added to the traditional plainsong hand still another letter (F retropolex) with the intention of rounding out a 3-octave sphere (FI-e l ), so Bermudo proposes in ch. 19 = 18 adding a new letter that will round out a 4-octave sphere on keyboard instruments.

Valla not only read Greek fluently but was the first to translate Archimedes and several other Hellenic authors. His readings in the ancient Greek musical theorists enabled him to offer more accurate summaries of such writers as Aristoxenus and Ptolemy than any predecessor had compiled. Of the 49 books in De expetendis et fugiendis, music occupies bks. 5-9 (liB pp. [I, fols. e6-m8]). Ornithoparchus may well have been the one who taught Bermudo the value of Valla's compend. Sources At all events, Ornithoparchus cites him frequently.

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