By Andrew Bennett

The emergence of staring at platforms equivalent to acoustically-tracked floats within the deep ocean, and floor drifters navigating by means of satellite tv for pc has obvious renewed curiosity in Lagrangian fluid dynamics. ranging from the principles of straight forward kinematics and assuming a few familiarity of Eulerian fluid dynamics, this booklet studies the classical and new distinct ideas of the Lagrangian framework, after which addresses the overall solvability of the ensuing basic equations of movement. A unified account of turbulent diffusion and dispersion is out there, with purposes between others to plankton patchiness within the ocean.

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Ignoring questions of convergence, assume that the Lagrangian velocity has a Taylor series expansion about s in powers of t − s: uj ak s t = 1 n u ak s t n j n=0 n! 1) For any labeling, the Lagrangian and Eulerian velocities are related by uj ak s t = uj Xi ak s t t . 2) ak s s t=s for all n ≥ 0. Assume that the Eulerian velocities at multiple points are statistically homogeneous, or in other words assume that the expectation value of any function of multiple uj xi t is independent of the absolute positions xi .

16) express conservation of entropy, and both require an equation of state, such as = p or p = p . 18) This mixed Eulerian–Lagrangian expression may be converted to a purely Lagrangian expression by transforming the flow divergence to Lagrangian form. 20) Note that this differential equation is mixed: the time derivative is Lagrangian while the space derivatives are Eulerian. 24) is purely Lagrangian. (ii) The Lagrangian conservation law for total energy is awkward, owing to the need to express the intrinsically Eulerian divergence of the rate of work done locally by pressure.

45) where dh = dp/ and Fi = − / xi . 47) and the vector vj = vj ak s is an arbitrary function of the labeling coordinates. 46) reveals that the change in the strained velocity from time s to time t is minus the gradient of a scalar field with respect to the labels. 7 Cauchy–Weber integrals 37 The time integrated law may be derived in another way. 51) where i ≡ ilj is therefore independent of the time since release: i am s t = ijk aj u k am s assuming solely for simplicity that Xi aj s s = ai . 53) Evidently 1 , for example, is the circulation at the release time s around an infinitesimal circuit of fluid particle in label space, which circuit bounds the infinitesimal surface defined by the differentials da2 , da3 .

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