By Hans FREUDENTHAL

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Additional info for Lincos: Design of a Language for Cosmic Intercourse. Part 1

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To calculate the truth-value of a formula α at points in MΛ we need only know the truth-values of the finitely many subformulas of α. We can regard two members of MΛ as equivalent if they assign the same truth-values to all subformulas of α. If there are n such subformulas, then there will be at most 2n resulting equivalence classes of elements of MΛ , even though MΛ itself is uncountably large. Identifying equivalent elements allows MΛ to be collapsed to a finite quotient model which will falsify α if MΛ does.

The key property of this construction is that an and ΦΛ (p, u) = arbitrary formula α is true in MΛ at u iff α ∈ u. e. α is true at all points of MΛ , iff α is an Λ-theorem. Thus MΛ is a single characteristic model for Λ, now commonly called the canonical Λ-model. Moreover, the properties of this model are intimately connected with the proof-theory of Λ. For example, if (✷α → α) is an Λ-theorem for all α, then it follows directly from properties of maximally consistent sets that RΛ is reflexive. This gives a technique for proving that various logics are characterised by suitable conditions on models, a technique that is explored extensively in [Lemmon and Scott, 1966].

Montague did not initially plan to publish the paper because “it contains no results of any great technical interest”, but eventually changed his mind after the appearance of Kanger’s and Kripke’s ideas. The aim of the paper is to interpret logical and physical necessity, and the deontic modality “it is obligatory that”, and to relate these to the use of quantifiers. Tarski’s model theory for first-order languages is employed for this purpose: a model is taken to be a structure M = (D, R, f ) where D is a domain of individuals, R a function fixing an interpretation of individual constants and finitary predicates in D in the now-familiar way, and f is an assignment of values in D to individual variables.

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