By Vladimir S Kislik I

This product provides complete details on liquid membrane separations, presenting the foundations and functions of quite a few liquid membrane separation processes. A severe research of latest applied sciences and their theoretical history is gifted, in addition as directions for destiny improvement. - presents accomplished knowledge-based details at the rules and functions of various liquid membrane separation methods. - features a serious research of latest applied sciences released within the final 15 years.

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Kislik are often used to distinguish between a diffusional regime and a kinetic regime: (1) Comparison of the heat transfer and the mass-transfer coefficients. If the same dependence of the heat transfer coefficient and the mass-transfer coefficient on the stirring or flowing rate of the phases is observed, the conclusion can be reached that the transport occurs in a diffusional regime. (2) The reference substance method. This method is based on the addition of another inert component with known diffusion rate.

Kislik When the LM contains a carrier that is able to form a complex with the solute in the organic phase (see Eq. (39), steps 1, 2, and maybe 3): KFE ¼ ½SEŠ ½Se1 Š½EŠ ð69Þ the forward extraction step becomes: Kfex ¼ KfP KFE ¼ ½SEŠ ½Sf1 Š½EŠ ð70Þ And equation for the flux: JFE ¼ ðKP þ Ffex Þð½Sf1 Š À ½Se1 ŠÞ ð71Þ where facilitating factor of carrier at complex formation (forward extraction), Ffex: Ffex ¼ Kfex ½EŠ0 fð1 þ Kfex ½Sfe ŠÞð1 þ Kfex ½Se1 ŠÞ ð72Þ The total flux is not directly proportional to the concentration gradient due to the existence of two transport mechanisms in the membrane; solutiondiffusion and diffusion of the carrier-solute complex.

According to assumptions and concentration profiles, illustrated in Fig. 2B, the solute flux from the bulk aqueous feed phase to the bulk aqueous strip phase can be described in terms of individual mass-transfer coefficients at steady state and additivity of a one-dimensional series of diffusion resistances. Overall mass-transfer coefficient, KELM: 1 KELM ¼ 1 1 1 Kbex Kbex þ þ þ þ kf Kfex kcom Kfex ke Kfex kdcom Kfex kr ð65Þ 3. ) as a result of the thermodynamic conditions at the F/E interface.

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