By Peter A. Davidson, Andre Thess (eds.)

This publication is an creation to terrestial magnetohydrodynamics. it's a compendium of introductory lectures by way of specialists within the box, focussing on functions in and the laboratory. A concise review of the topic with references to additional study.

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Field performed on the basis of a complete numerical simulation and using asymptotic methods agree well. 7 Expansions The MHO flow in expansions or contractions exhibits a strong similarity with the flows in a fringing magnetic field. While in the case of a fringing field the axial potential gradient is created by different values of the induced electric field v x B with varying values of B, in the case of axially changing cross sections now the velocity v changes along the axis which may cause an axial potential difference that drives additional currents and creates thereby increased pressure drop.

In figure 33d the velocity redistribution is demonstrated by measured velocity values in a circular duct at two positions (see figure 33d), at the top and the while it increases in side layer. Figure 33b demonstrates the pressure variation between the duct core and the side layer in the range of the 'fringing' B-field. The overall pressure gradient in flow direction is seen in figure 33c. A pronounced difference in pressure drop in comparison with the inertialess theory can not be identified. This indicates that inertia effects were not significant with regard to the overall pressure losses of inertialess MHD channel flow.

These currents close across the channel width at upstream and downstream positions of the B-field transition zone as indicated in figure 33. components in flow direction result in Lorentz forces with direction towards the side walls and corresponding transversal pressure gradient. Moreover, the upstream and downstream short circulated currents induce Lorentz forces opposite and in flow direction, which decelerate the core flow upstream and accelerate it downstream. As a consequence, the volumetric flux is expelled from the core flow region of the pipe to the vicinity of the side walls generating significant overspeed and an overall M-shape velocity profile.

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