By W. V. Quine (auth.), Avishai Margalit (eds.)

The moment Jerusalem Philosophical stumble upon used to be held in Jerusalem on April 25-28, 1976. The symposium used to be initially deliberate to have a good time the sixtieth birthday of Y ehoshua Bar-Hillel, thinker and buddy. yet his surprising loss of life intervened, and grew to become party into commemoration. the subject of the symposiumwas which means and Use. For Bar-Hillel, the query 'meaning or use?' was once of serious value, one that he took as a question of priorities. Which method of typical language is earlier: the formal, semantical procedure, which accords a imperative place to the reality­ practical thought of that means and to the idea of reference, or quite the choice method which accords the relevant place to linguistic commu­ nication and prefers facing speech acts to facing Statements? Bar­ Hillel's solution to this question, in his later years, should be summed up by means of our identify, which means and use: neither process merits precedence, each one is both worthwhile, and so they either supplement one another. these accustomed to Bar­ Hillel's uncompromising highbrow honesty could be aware of that this resolution doesn't replicate a superficial want for household peace, yet stems quite from deep and knowledgeable convictions. the problems of that means and use ruled Bar-Hillel's intellectuallife. even as his day by day lifestyles used to be guided by means of the concept that the that means of existence is to be present in being necessary, fairly in being valuable to the neighborhood of seekers of knowledge.

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One might parody both of them by describing the variety approach as that which is unable to WHA T IS A THEOR Y OF USE? 41 show the wood for the trees and the unity approach as that which is unable to show trees for the wood. The methodological point at issue is the theoretical role of a taxonomy of speech-acts. According to the variety approach, advancing such a classification is a natural, if not necessary, first step, provided that the classes are well-defined by clear and objective concepts,13 It is the latter rider which dimisses Austin's taxonomy of English illocutionary verbs; I take Searle's arguments to tlmt effect to be conclusive,14 However, better taxonomies of illocutionary acts or verbs might also not stand up to criticism for a more important reason, viz.

Game G. Every object is tagged or labeled. You read the Iabel and know whatever there is to know about the object. lt is obvious that any GO which would be played with any of these games as its admission game will be very different from ours; yet it is clearly conceivable that, under certain conditions (in some possible worlds) it may be more reasonable, and pragmatically expedient, to adopt any of the games A-G, rather than PMG, as the GO admission game. Now, I think, I can examine the mechanics of our own game, PMG-GO, more closely.

External) objects? An answer to this question, I think, can be given only when one recognizes that there are two distinct language games which are essentially connected with our concept ofbecoming aware of an object. I shall try to show that although both these games are necessary in order for us to have our present concept of being aware of something, they are quite distinct games, and can be played independently of each other. " will thus be shown to be essentially misguided, and its apparent meaningfulness due only to our tendency to commit a conceptual short-circuit here and lose sight of the fact that our epistemic game is actually two games played together in a certain way.

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