By Cedric Mims BSc MD FRCPath, Hazel Dockrell BA (Mod) PhD, Richard Goering BA MSc PhD, Ivan Roitt DSc HonFRCP FRCPath FRS, Derek Wakelin BSc PhD DSc FRCPath, Mark Zuckerman BSc (Hons) MB BS MRCP MSc FRCPath

The most recent variation of this the world over renowned textbook has been considerably up to date and more desirable to maintain it on the vanguard of scientific microbiology. Its systems-based strategy emphasizes the microbiology of the brokers accountable for the ailments that have an effect on person components of the physique. Over 250 full-color diagrams make clear advanced concepts-paired with colour scientific images that display the scientific relevance of the technology.

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Fungi are ubiquitous as free-living organisms and are of enormous importance commercially in baking, brewing and in pharmaceuticals. Some form part of the body's normal flora, and others are common causes of local infections on skin and hair. A number of fungi are associated with significant disease and many of these are acquired from the external environment. Pathogenic species invade tissues and digest material externally by releasing enzymes; they also take up nutrients directly from host tissues.

For example, analysis might involve a comparison of gene expression (transcription) in an organism under different environmental conditions (Fig. 14b). In such an experiment, genomics can provide data allowing sequences from every known chromosomal gene of the organism to be applied to a unique position on the chip. Messenger RNA (the result of gene expression) may be isolated from the same bacteria grown under either environmental condition A or B. Using the enzyme reverse transcriptase in a process similar to that naturally employed by retroviruses (see Chapter 3), the mRNA is copied into complementary DNA (termed cDNA).

Replication of viral DNA occurs in the host nucleus-except for poxviruses, where it takes place in the cytoplasm Viral DNA may become complexed with host histones to produce stable structures. With herpesviruses, mRNA translated in the cytoplasm produces a DNA polymerase that is necessary for the synthesis of new viral DNA; adenoviruses use both viral and host enzymes for this purpose. With retroviruses, synthesis of new viral RNA occurs in the nucleus, host RNA polymerase transcribing from the viral DNA that has become integrated into the host genome (Fig.

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