By Rajindar Singh, E.J. Hoffman, Simon Judd

Membranes know-how e-book assortment comprises four of our best-selling titles, offering the final word reference for each filtration and separation engineer's library. Get entry to over 1500 pages of reference fabric, at a fragment of the cost of the hard-copy books. This CD comprises the total ebooks of the next four titles:Singh, Hybrid Membrane structures for Water Purification: structures layout and Operations Read more...

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B Operating pressure. c Burst pressure. 2 mm pore membrane. membranes is a significantly longer life, up to 10 years. For most polymer membranes, typical life varies from one year for hydrophilic membranes, two to three years for hydrophobic membranes, and up to four years for fluoropolymers. Ceramic membranes are, however, much more expensive than polymeric membranes and are brittle. Other inorganic membranes include: (a) zeolite membranes, which have very narrow pore sizes, and are very good prospects for GS and PV membranes; (b) sintered metal membranes; and (c) organo-mineral membranes that are intermediate between polymeric and ceramic membranes.

They are usually symmetric unlike UF membranes. MF membranes with well-defined pores are now manufactured in inorganic materials such as alumina and zirconia. 19,21,26 Ceramic MF membrane modules cost 3–4 times the polymer membrane modules. Some of this high initial cost is offset by the lower operating costs because of much longer life of ceramic membranes. 7. 11. MF is primarily used for clarifying liquids while UF is used for fractionating solutions. g. 26,31 Examples of downstream processing include clarification of fermentation broths, sterile filtration, cell recycle in continuous fermentation, harvesting mammalian cells, cell washing, mycelia and lysate recovery, enzyme purification, and vaccines.

Because of their greater rigidity, ceramic microfilters accommodate fluxes 5–10 times greater than those of asymmetric polymeric membranes, and can be backwashed frequently without damaging the membrane skin layer. Ceramic membranes offer applications in high temperature applications whereas polymeric membranes are restricted to temperatures less than 90 C. Ceramic membrane elements also have a greater resistance to cleaning chemicals, and can be steam sterilised and autoclaved repeatedly, which makes them well suited for biopharmaceutical processing.

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