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CONTENTS

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Preface

CHAPTER ONE. fundamentals FROM ALGEBRA AND TOPOLOGY

1. 1 Set Theory

1. 2 a few common Algebraic Structures

1. three Algebras in General

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1. five Semimetric and Semiuniform Spaces

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Index

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**Extra resources for Methods and Methodologies: Aristotelian Logic East and West, 500-1500 (Investigating Medieval Philosophy) **

**Sample text**

This impression is corroborated by the parallelism with the following definition of the particular in section [c], and the analogous common definition of the universal in sections [a] and [e] of Text 1. 2] is different: the ‘sphere containing [a solid] with twenty triangular faces’ in Text 1 is replaced by the ‘heptagonal house’ in Text 2. 2] in Text 1 might have some significance for Avicenna’s theory of fictional beings (on this topic see Black 1997). 3] in Text 2 (absent in Text 1) possibly designates an inductive procedure or a demonstration quia.

Supposition is not, she argues, reference, but 24 Spade 1988, 190 and 192. Most recently, Spade’s (1988, 212) view is this: ‘By the early fourteenth-century, the doctrine of modes as a theory of reference had been pretty much defeated. But once this had happened, the theory of modes of supposition was left with no question to answer. It was no longer a theory of reference; it was not, I have argued, a theory of truth conditions or analysis. The theory was left with no task to perform. No wonder it has proved so hard for scholars to agree about what it was trying to accomplish.

The Rational Reconstructions that are produced are in the end just one type of approach to the history of logic, and cannot do more as histories than they claim to achieve, namely, to find ways for the past to speak in our language, or to discover that they cannot. 2 Historical Reconstruction The aim of an Historical Reconstruction is to present, as accurately as possible, the logical theories (and practices) of the past on their own terms. The logic of the past, of course, cannot simply be presented undisturbed, or without reconstruction of any sort.

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